Chapter 6

tigrebright's version from 2015-09-27 00:53

Section 1

Question Answer
lymphangi/olymphatic vessels and ducts
lymphaden/olymph nodes
tonsill/o, adenoid/otonsils and adenoids
myel/obone marrow
neo-,ne/onew, strange
-omatumor, neoplasm
phag/oeat, swallow
-plasmformative material of cells
sarc/oflesh, connective tissue
-ticpertaining to
tox/opoison, poisonous

Section 2

Question Answer
lactealsabsorb fats that cannot be transported by the bloodstream
interstitial fluidplasma between the cells
lymphclear, watery fluid containing electrolytes and proteins
lymphatic circulatory systemsecondary circulatory system
lymphatic capillariesmicroscopic, blind-ended tubes near the surface of the body
lymphatic vesselslocated deeper in the tissues than capillaries
right lymphatic ductcollects lymph from right side of body; empties into rt subclavian vein
thoracic ductcollects lymph from left side of body; empties into lft subclavian vein
lymph nodesbean-shaped that destroy pathogens
cervical lymph nodeslocated along the neck
axillary lymph nodeslocated in the armpits
inguinal lymph nodeslocated in groin area

Section 3

Question Answer
lymphocytesleukocytes formed in blood marrow as stem cells
natural killer cellskill cancer cells and cells infected by viruses
B cellsproduce antibodies
plasma cellsdevelop from B cells;secrete large volume of antibodies
T cellsoriginate in thymus;cell-mediated immunity
cytokinesact as signals to begin the immune response; released primarily by the T cells
interferonsactivate the immune system;fight viruses;signal other cells,slow or stop the virus from multiplying
interleukinsmany roles; directing B and T cells to divide and proliferate

Section 4

Question Answer
tonsilsthree masses of lymphoid tissue that form a ring around the throat
adenoidslocated in upper part of pharynx
palatine tonsilsleft and right side of throat
lingual tonsils located at the base of the tongue
thymus glandlocated above the heart; secretes hormone that grows T cells
vermiform appendixpart of the immune system
spleenupper left quadrant of the abdomen;below diaphragm;behind stomach
hemolyticdestroying worn-out erythorcytes
pathogensdisease-producing microorganisms
allergensproduce allergic reactions
toxinspoisonous or harmful
malignant cellscancer cells

Section 5

Question Answer
intact skinno cuts; body's first line of defense against invaders
respiratory systemtraps breathed-in foreign matter
digestive systemuses acids and enzymes in the stomach to destroy invaders
lymphatic systemattack and destroy pathogens
antigen-antibody reactionprocess of binding antigens to antibodies
antigenany substance the body sees as foreign
toleranceacquired unresponsiveness to a specific antigen
antibodydisease-fighting protein created by the immune system
immunoglobulinsbind with specific antigens
immunoglobulin Gbind with bacteria, fungi, viruses, foreign particles
immunoglobulin Abind with ingested antigens
immunoglobulin Mfirst responders to exposure to antigen
immunoglobulin Dfound only on the surface of B cells
immunoglobulin Eresponsible for allergic reactions

Section 6

Question Answer
phagocytesdestroy cell debris, dust, pollen, and pathogens
monocoytesactive in defense against infectious organisms
macrophageprocess of invading and killing invading cells
dendritic cellssearch for and destroy antigens that produce infections
complement systemincreases the ability of the antibodies to ward off pathogens
immunitystate of being resistant to a specific disease
natural immunitypresent at birth,or acquired through breast milk
acquired immunityfrom vaccinations or exposure
allergistspecializes in conditions of altered immunologic reactivity
immunologiststudies disorders of the immune system
lymphologiststudies disorders of the lymph system
oncologistcancer doctor

Section 7

Question Answer
lymphadenitisinflammation of lymph glands; swollen glands
lymphadenopathyany disease affecting the lymph nodes
lymphangiomabenign tumor;abnormal collection of lymph vessels
splenomegalyabnormal enlargement of the spleen
lymphoscintigraphytest to detect damage or malformations of the lymph vessles
lymphedemaswelling of the tissues due to too much lymph fluid in the tissues
primary lymphedemahereditary
secondary lymphedemacaused by damage to lymphatic vessels
bioimpedance spectroscopyused to diagnose lymphedema

Section 8

Question Answer
allergic reactionwhen the immune system over reacts to a harmless allergen
allergensubstance that produces an allergic reaction
localized allergic reactionitching,etc where the skin has come into contact with an allergen
systemic reactionanaphylaxis
antihistaminesto relieve or prevent symptoms of hay fever
autoimmune disorderthe immune system produces antibodies against its own tissues
immunodeficiency disorderimmune system is compromised
human immunodeficiency virusdamages or kills the T cells
opportunistic infectionnormally harmless unless the host is debilitated
acquired immunodeficiency syndormmost advanced and fatal stage of an HIV infection

Section 9

Question Answer
autoimmune disorder of the skeletal systemrheumatoid arthritis
autoimmune disorder of the muscular systemmyasthenia gravis
autoimmune disorder of the cardiovascular systempernicious anemia
autoimmune disorder of the digestive systemcrohn's disease
autoimmune disorder of the nervous systemmultiple sclerosis
autoimmune disorder of the integumentary systemscleroderma
autoimmune disorder of the endocrine systemgraves' disease
skeletal system disorderaffects joints and connective tissue
muscular system disorderaffects nerve and muscle synapses
cardio vascular system disorderaffects the red blood cells
digestive system disorderaffects the intestines, ileum or the colon
nervous system disorderaffects the brain and spinal cord
integumentary system disorderaffects the skin and connective tissues
endocrine system disorderaffects the thyroid gland
kaposi's sarcomaopportunistic disease that causes patches of abnormal tissue to grow under the skin, etc
enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)blood test to screen for HIV antibodies
western blot testmore accurate that ELISA

Section 10

Question Answer
immunotherapystimulating or repressing the immune system
synthetic immunoglobulinspreventative measure against certain viruses;ie rabies, hepatitis
synthetic interferontreatment of MS,hepatitis c, some cancers
monoclonal antibodiesartificially produced antibodies to enhance patient's immune system
innumosuppressionrepress the ability of the immune system to respond to antigens
corticosteroid drughormone-like drug;used as anti-inflammatory and innumosuppressant
cytotoxic drugkills or damages cells; used for immunosupressant and chemotherapy
pathogenmicroorganism that causes disease in humans
bacteriaone-celled microscopic organisms
bacillirod-shaped spore-forming bacteria
anthraxcontagious pathogen transmitted through livestock
riskettsialives in lice,fleas, ticks and mites; Rocky Mtn. Spotted Fever
spirocheteslong spiral-shaped bacteria with flexible walls and capable of movement
lyme diseaseaffects joints, heart and central nervous system
staphylococcimost are harmless;some produce serious infections; form bacteria clusters
staphylococcus aureusinfects wounds;causes serious problems-toxic shock syndrom
streptococcicause strep throat and meningitis,endocarditis, and necrotizing fasciitis; bacteria that forms a chain

Section 11

Question Answer
septic shockoccurs with an overwhelming bacterial infection
antibiotic-resistant bacteriawhen antibiotics fail to kill all the bacteria they target
methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureusMRSA; highly contagious; caused by mis-use or under-use of the "cillins"
fungussimple parasitic organism
yeasttype of fungus
parasitelives on or within another living organism
malariacaused by a parasite that lives in mosquitoes
toxoplasmosisparasite transmitted from pets to humans
west nile virusspread to humans by bite of mosquitoes
lyme diseasetransmitted to humans by tick bite
virusessmall infectious agents;live only by invading other cells
influenzahighly contagious viral respiratory infection
measlesacute, highly contagious;transmitted by respiratory droplets
mumpsacute viral infection;swelling of the parotid glands
rubellagerman measles;fever, swollen glands,inflamed eyes;pink rash
measles,mumps,rubella vaccinationMMR
rabiestransmitted by bite or saliva of an infected animal

Section 12

Question Answer
cytomegalovirussilent infection; CMV; type of herpes virus
varicellachicken pox
herpes zostershingles
infectious mononucleosisfever,sore throat,enlarged lymph nodes; caused by Epstein-Barr virus
antibioticscapable of inhibiting growth or killing pathogenic bacterial microorganisms
bactericidecauses the death of bacteria
bacteriostaticslows or stops the growth of bacteria
antifungaldestroys or inhibits growth of fungi
antiviral drugtreat viral infections or provide temporary immunity