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Chapter 6 Vocab

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blueghost's version from 2017-02-28 12:02

Section

Question Answer
bureaucracya hierarchically structured administrative org that carries out specific functions
policya set of guiding principles designed to influence the behaviour and decision making of police officers
delegation of authoritythe principles of command on which most police org are based in which personnel take orders from and are responsible to those positions of power that are directly above them
detectivethe primary police investigator of crimes
confidential informant CIa human source for police who provides info concerning illegal activity in which he or she is involved
clearance ratea comparison of the number of crimes cleared by arrest and porsection witht the number of crimes reported during any given period
cold casea criminal investigation that has not been solved after a certain amount of time
forensicsthe application of science to establish facts and evidence during the investigation of crimes
trace evidenceevidence such as a fingerprint, blood, or hair found in small amounts at a crime scene
ballisticsthe study of firearms, including the firing of the weapon and the flight of the bullet
DNA fingerprintingthe id of a person based on a sample of DNA,
cold hitthe establishment of a connection between a suspect and a crime, often through the use of DNA, in the absense of an ongoing criminal investigation
incident-driven policinga reactive approach to polcing that emphasizes a speedy response to a call for service
response timethe rapidity with which calls for serviced are answered
differential responsea strategy for answering calls for service in which response time is adapted to the seriousness of the call
computer-aided dispatch (CAD)a method of dispatching police patrol units to the site of 911 emergencies with the assistance of a computer program
reverse 911a mobile phone based communication system that allows the public officials to send outbund messages in the event of an emergency
random patrola patrol strategy that relies on police officers monitoring certain areas with the goal of detecting crimes in progress or preventing them due to their presence
directed patrola patrol strategy that is designed to focus on a specific type of criminal activity in a specific geographic area
hot spotsconcentrated areas of high criminal activity that draw a directed police response
crime mappingtech that allows crime analysts to id trends and patterns of criminal behavior within a given area
reactive arrestsarrests that come about as part of the ordinary routine of police patrol and responses to calls for service
proactive arrestsarrests that occur because of cencerted efforts by law enforcement agencies to respond to a particular type of criminal or criminal behaviour
broken windows theorywilson and kellings theory that a neighborhood in disrepair signals that criminal activity is tolerated in the area; by cracking down on quality-of-life crimes police can reclaim the neighborhood and encourage law abiding citizens to live and work there
community policinga police philosophy that emphasizes community support for and cooperation with the police in preventing crime
problem-oriented policinga policing philosophy that requires police to id potential criminal activity and develop strategies to prevent or respond to the activity
police subculturethe values and perceptions that are shared by members of a police dept and to a certain extent by all law enforcement agents
socializationthe process through whcih a police officer is taught the values and expected behaviour of the police subcluture (police academy, working with senior officer, first felony arrest, use of force for the first time in an arrest, using or witnessing deadly force for the first time, major traumatic incident for the first time)
blue curtaina metaphorical term used to refer to the value placed on secrecy and the general mistrust of the outside world shared by many police officers
body armorprotective covering that is worn under a police officers clothing and is designed to minimalize injury from being shot
stressorsaspects of police work and life that lead to feelings of stress
burnouta mental state that occurs when a person suffers from exhausttion and has difficulty functioning normally as a result of overwork and stress
reasonable forcethe degree of force that is appropraite to protect the police officer or other citizens and is not excessive
deadly forceforce applied that is likely or intended to cause death
conducted energy device (CED)a less lethal weapon designed to disrupt a targets central nervous system by the means of charge of electrical energy (taser)
professionalismadherence to a set of values that show a police officer to be of the highest moral character
police corruptionthe abuse of authority by a law enforcement officer for personal gain
briberyofficer accepts money in exhcange for favors
shakedownsattempts to coerce money from a citizen or criminal
moochingaccepts free gifts in return for favorable treatment to the gift giver
internal affairs unity (iau)division within a police dept that receives and investigates complaints of wrongdoing by police officers
citizen oversightthe process by which citizens review complaints brought against indiv police officers or depts
civil liabilitythe potential responsibity of officers, depts, or muncipalities to defend themselves against civil lawsuits
civil rights violationany interference with a citizens const rights by cvil servent
nobel cause corruptionknowing misconduct by a police officer with the goal of attaining what the oficer believes is a just result
dutythe moral sense of a police officer that they should behave in a certain way
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