Chapter 6 Terms

thenorthstarblues's version from 2016-10-16 21:59


Question Answer
Access TimeThe amount of time it takes a storage device to locate an item on a storage medium or to deliver an item from memory to processor
Adapter CardA circuit board that enhances the functions of a component of a desktop or server system unit and/or provides connections to peripheral devices
AnalogContinuous (wave form) signals
Arithmetic Logic UnitComponent of the processor that performs arithmetic, comparisons, and other operations
Binary SystemNumber system that has just two unique digits, 0 and 1, called bits
BitThe smallest unit of data the computer can process, short of binary digit
BusElectrical channel that transfers electronic bits internally within the circuitry of a computer, allowing the devices both inside and attached to the system unit to communicate with each other
ByteEight bits grouped together as a unit
CacheArea of memory that stores the contents of frequently used data or instructions
CPUThe electronic component of a computer that interprets and carries out the basic instructions that operate a computer
ChipA small piece of semiconducting material, usually silicon, on which integrated circuits are etched
Clock SpeedThe pace of the system clock
Control UnitThe component of the processor that directs and coordinates most of the operations in the computer
DigitalRepresentation of data using only two discrete states: on (1) and off (0)
Expansion SlotA socket on a desktop or server motherboard that can hold an adapter card
FirmwareROM chips that contain permanently written data, instructions, or informations
Flash memoryType of nonvolatile memory that can be erased electronically and rewritten
GHzOne billion ticks of the system clock per second
memoryElectronic components that store instructions waiting to be executed and the data needed by those instructions
Memory Cachehelps speed the processes of the computer because it stores frequently used instructions and data. Most computer have Level 1 and Level 2
MotherboardThe main circuit board of the personal computer
Multi-core processorA single chip with two or more processor cores
Plug and PlayTechnology that gives a computer the capability to recognize peripheral devices as you install them
Power SupplyComponent of the system unit that converts wall outlet AC power to the DC power that is used by a computer
ProcessorThe electronic component of a computer that interprets and carries out the basic instructions that operate a computer
RAMMemory chips that can be read from and written to by the processor and other devices
Read-only memoryMemory chips that store permanent data and instructions
System ClockSmall quartz crystal circuit that controls the timing of all computer systems
USB adapterA dongle that plugs into a USB port, enhances functions of a mobile computer and/or provides connections to peripheral devices
Word sizeThe number of bits the processor can interpret and execute at a given time

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