Chapter 6 Terms and Definitions

futureradtech's version from 2017-07-09 19:54

Section 1

Question Answer
MemoryInformation collected and stored in the brain that is generally retrievable for later use
EncodingThe process through which information enters our memory system
StorageThe process of preserving information for possible recollection in the future
RetrievalThe process of accessing information encoded and stored in memory
Sensory MemoryA stage of memory that captures near exact copies of vast amounts of sensory stimuli for a very brief period of time
Short Term MemoryA stage of memory that temporarily maintains and processes a limited amount of information
Long Term MemoryA stage of memory with essentially unlimited capacity that stores enduring information about facts and experiences
Iconic MemoryVisual impressions that are photograph like in their accuracy but dissolve in less than a second; a form of sensory memory
Echoic MemoryExact Copies of the sounds we hear, a form of sensory memory
Chunking Grouping numbers, letters or other items in meaningful subsets as a strategy for increasing the quantity of information that can be maintained in short term memory
Working MemoryThe active processing of information in short term memory; the maintenance and manipulation of information in the memory system
Explicit MemoryA type of memory you are aware of having and can consciously express in words or declare, including memories of facts and experiences
Semantic Memory The memory of information theoretically available to anyone which pertains to general facts about the world; a type of explicit memory
Episodic MemoryThe record of memorable experiences or "episodes" including when and where an experience occurred; a type of explicit memroy
Flashbulb MemoryA detailed amount of circumstances surrounding an emotionally significant or shocking, sometimes historic event

Section 2

Question Answer
Implicit MemoryA memory of something you know or known how to do, but that might be automatic or unconscious; this type of memory is often difficult to bring to awareness or express
Procedural MemoryThe unconscious memory of how to carry out of a variety of skills and activities; a type of implicit memory
Mnemonic Techniques to improve memory
Effortful ProcessingThe encoding and storage of information with conscious effort or awareness
Maintenance Rehearsal Technique of repeating information to be remembered, increasing the length of time it can be held in short term memory
Elaborative RehearsalThe method of connecting incoming information to knowledge in long term memory; a deep level of encoding
Massed Practice Studying for long periods of time without breaks
Distributed Practice Spreading out study sessions over time with breaks in between
Retrieval CuesStimuli that help in the retrieval of stored information that is difficult to access
PrimingThe stimulation of memories as a results of retrieval cues in the environment
RecallThe process of retrieving information help in long term memory without the help of explicit retrieval cues
RecognitionThe process of matching incoming data to information stored in long term memory
Serial Position EffectThe ability to recall items in a list depends on where they are in the series
Primary EffectThe tendency to remember items at the beginning of a list
Recency EffectThe tendency to remember items at the end of a list
Encoding Specificity Principle Memories are more easily recalled when the context and cues at the time of encoding are similar to those at the time of the retrieval

Section 3

Question Answer
RelearningMaterial learned previously is acquired more quickly in subsequent exposure
Proactive InterferenceThe tendency for information learned in the past to interfere with the retrieval of new material
Retroactive InterferenceThe tendency for recently learned information to interfere with the retrieval of things learned in the past
Misinformation Effect The tendency for new and misleading information obtained after an incident to distort ones memory of it
Rich False MemoriesRecollections of an event that never occurred, which are expressed with emotions and confidence and include details
Anterograde Amnesia A type of memory loss , an inability to create new memories following damage or injury to the brain
Retrograde Amnesia A type of memory loss; an inability to access memories formed prior to damage or injury to the brain, or difficulty retrieving them
Memory TraceThe location where memories are etched in the brain via physiological changes
Long Term Potentiation The increased efficiency of neural communication over time, resulting in learning and the formation of memories

Recent badges