Chapter 6 b

tigrebright's version from 2015-09-26 15:20

Section 1

Question Answer
oncologystudy of prevention, causes, treatments of tumors and cancer
tumorabnormal growth of body tissue
benign tumornot a form of cancer and not life-threatening
malignant tumorform of cancer
myosarcomamalignant tumor derived from muscle tissue
angiogenesishow a tumor supports its growth by creating its own blood supply
antiangiogenesistreatment to disrupt the blood supply to the tumor
canceruncontrolled division of cells;cells ability to invade other tissues
metastasizespread from one place to another
metastasisnew cancer site resulting from the spreading process
carcinomamalignant tumor ;occurs in epithelial tissue
carcinoma in situhas not yet disturbed or invaded surrounding tissues
adenocarcinomacarcinoma derived from glandular tissue
sarcomaarises from connective tissues
hard-tissue sarcomacancer of bone or cartilage
osteosarcomainvolves upper shaft of long bones,pelvis or knee
soft-tissue sarcomacancers of muscle, fat, fibrous tissue,blood and lymphatic vessels
synovial sarcomatumor of tissues surrounding a synovial joint;knees or elbows
liquid-tissue sarcomafrom blood and lymph
leukemiacancer of the white blood-forming cells in the bone marrow

Section 2

Question Answer
stagingprocess of classifying tumors
lymphomasmalignancies affecting lymphoid tissues
Hodgkin's lymphomapresence of large, cancerous lymphocytes called Reed-Sternberg cells
non-Hodgkin's lymphomaall other lymphomas other than hodgkin's
breast cancerdevelops in the cells of the breast;can spread to lymph nodes
ductal carcinoma in situbefore it has broken through the walls of the milk duct
infiltrating ductal carcinomastarts in milk duct,breaks through wall and invades fatty breast tissue
infiltrating lobular carcinoma invasive lobular carcinoma;once in lymph nodes, spread rapidly
inflammatory breast cancerrare but aggressive;can only be detected by MRI
male breast cancercan occur in the small amount of breast tissue normally present
stage 0only in one location
stage 1moved beyond the duct but not yet reached lymph nodes
stage 2increased in size and/or reached axillary lymph nodes
stage 3spread to cervical lymph nodes and/or tissues surrounding breast
stage 4spread to other organs;brain,lungs,liver or bones

Section 3

Question Answer
breast self-examinationself-care procedure for early detection
professional palpation of the breastto feel texture,size,and consistency of breast
mammographyradiographic exam to detect tumors or precancerous cells
ultrasoundused when mammogram finds abnormality
needle breast biopsyused to remove small samples of breast tissue
surgical biopsyremoval of small piece for examination confirm diagnosis
sentinel node biopsyfirst lymph node to come into contact with cancer cells
lymph node dissectionall lymph nodes in a major group are removed
lumpectomyremoval of only cancerous tissue and surrounding normal tissue
mastectomyremoval of the entire breast and nipple
radical mastectomyremoval of entire breast and many surrounding tissues
modified radical mastectomyremoval of entire breast and all axillary lymphy nodes
immediate breast reconstructionbegins during same surgery;expander replaces missing tissue
delayed breast recontructionmay be necessary of radiation is following

Section 4

Question Answer
chemotherapyuse of chemical agents and drugs to destroy malignant cells & tissues
chemopreventionused to reduce the risk of developing or to reduce size of tumor
antineoplasticmeds that block the development, growth, of proliferation of malignant cells
radiation therapyused in the treatment of some cancers
brachytherapyuse of radioactive materials in contact with or implanted into tissues
teletherapyradiation therapy administered at a distance from the body
targeted therapyused to indentify and attack specific cancer cells w/o harming normal cells
adjuvant therapyused to increase the effectiveness of another therapy
clinical trialstesting new treatments not yet approved

Section 5

Question Answer
CIScarcinoma in situ
DCISductal carcinoma in situ
HZherpes zoster
HLHodgkin's lymphoma
MMRmeasles, mumps, rubella vaccination
NHLnon-Hodgkin's lymphoma

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