Chapter 5-3 - The Human Body (Test Questions)

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General Knowledge

Question Answer
Capillary sphincter closure during internal or external bleeding is detrimental because...
     A.) waste products are not removed and nutrients are not delivered to the cells.
     B.) available blood is shunted off to another venule while still carrying oxygen.
     C.) high levels of oxygen remain in the cell and can cause significant damage.
     D.) carbon dioxide and other waste can enter the cell, but oxygen cannot enter.
Deoxygenated blood from the abdomen, pelvis, and lower extremities is returned to the right atrium via the...
     A.) common iliac vein.
     B.) coronary sinus vein.
     C.) inferior vena cava.
     D.) superior vena cava.
Worn out blood cells, foreign substances, and bacteria are filtered from the blood by the...
     A.) liver.
     B.) spleen.
     C.) kidney.
     D.) pancreas.
Which of the following statements regarding plasma is correct?
     A.) Plasma transports the blood cells and nutrients.
     B.) Approximately 45% of the blood is composed of plasma.
     C.) Plasma has no role in the body’s blood-clotting mechanism.
     D.) Most of the body’s plasma is contained within the large veins.
Hemoglobin is a molecule that attaches to ___________ and carries oxygen.
     A.) monocytes
     B.) erythrocytes
     C.) leukocytes
     D.) thrombocytes
White blood cells are also called leukocytes and function by...
     A.) producing the body’s erythrocytes.
     B.) producing blood-clotting factors.
     C.) protecting the body from infection.
     D.) carrying oxygen and other nutrients.
What is the function of platelets?
     A.) initial formation of a blood clot
     B.) transport of oxygen and nutrients
     C.) defense against invading organisms
     D.) transport of cellular waste materials
The phase of the cardiac cycle in which the ventricles fill with blood is called...
     A.) systole.
     B.) diastole.
     C.) cardiac output.
     D.) stroke volume.
A patient has a blood pressure of 130/70 mm Hg. The “130” represents...
     A.) atrial contraction.
     B.) ventricular filling.
     C.) ventricular contraction.
     D.) ventricular relaxation.
The average adult has approximately ___________ of blood in his or her body.
     A.) 3 L
     B.) 4 L
     C.) 5 L
     D.) 6 L
The circulation of blood within an organ or tissue in adequate amounts to meet the cells’ current needs is called...
     A.) respiration.
     B.) perfusion.
     C.) metabolism.
     D.) cardiac output.
___________ pressure is the pressure exerted by a liquid and occurs when blood is moved through the artery at relatively high pressures.
     A.) Hydrostatic
     B.) Osmotic
     C.) Oncotic
     D.) Diffusion
Key hormones of the sympathetic nervous system include...
     A.) acetylcholine and insulin.
     B.) epinephrine and norepinephrine.
     C.) glucagon and noradrenaline.
     D.) norepinephrine and acetylcholine.
Stimulation of alpha-adrenergic receptors results in...
     A.) increased heart rate.
     B.) dilation of the blood vessels.
     C.) increased cardiac contractility.
     D.) constriction of the blood vessels.
An increase in heart rate and contractility occurs due to stimulation of...
     A.) beta-1 receptors.
     B.) beta-2 receptors.
     C.) alpha-1 receptors.
     D.) alpha-2 receptors.
Stimulation of the parasympathetic nervous system would result in...
     A.) tachycardia.
     B.) a strong pulse.
     C.) vasoconstriction.
     D.) a slow heart rate.
Which of the following statements regarding nervous system control of the cardiovascular system is correct?
     A.) When stimulated, the parasympathetic nervous system is responsible for increasing the heart rate.
     B.) Alpha-adrenergic receptors are located exclusively in the heart and are stimulated by epinephrine.
     C.) Baroreceptors located throughout the body provide information to the brain regarding the blood pressure.
     D.) The sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems work together to perform the same function.
Activities such as walking, talking, and writing are regulated exclusively by the...
     A.) central nervous system.
     B.) somatic nervous system.
     C.) autonomic nervous system.
     D.) involuntary nervous system.
The central nervous system is composed of the...
     A.) brain and spinal cord.
     B.) brain and sensory nerves.
     C.) motor and sensory nerves.
     D.) spinal cord and sensory nerves.
The autonomic nervous system controls all of the following functions, EXCEPT...
     A.) digestion.
     B.) breathing.
     C.) breath holding.
     D.) vessel dilation.
The largest portion of the brain, which is commonly referred to as the “gray matter,” is called the...
     A.) cerebrum.
     B.) cerebellum.
     C.) brain stem.
     D.) diencephalon.
The part of the brain that controls the left side of the body is the...
     A.) right side cerebrum.
     B.) left side cerebrum.
     C.) left parietal lobe.
     D.) right temporal lobe.
Trauma to the __________ lobe of the brain would likely result in visual disturbances.
     A.) frontal
     B.) parietal
     C.) temporal
     D.) occipital
Which part of the central nervous system is responsible for coordinating bodily movements such as writing or sewing?
     A.) cerebrum
     B.) cerebellum
     C.) brain stem
     D.) hypothalamus
All necessary life functions are coordinated in what part of the brain?
     A.) cerebrum
     B.) gray matter
     C.) cerebellum
     D.) brain stem
Your ability to remain awake is a function of the...
     A.) cerebellum.
     B.) limbic system.
     C.) pons and medulla.
     D.) reticular activating system.
The connecting nerve, a nerve of the peripheral nervous system, functions by...
     A.) connecting the sensory and motor nerves and bypassing the brain.
     B.) connecting motor nerves directly to the walls of the blood vessels.
     C.) connecting sensory nerves directly to the posterior cerebral cortex.
     D.) connecting the spinal cord directly to the target muscle or organ.
What set of nerves is responsible for carrying information from the body to the central nervous system?
     A.) motor
     B.) cranial
     C.) vertebral
     D.) sensory
Which of the following skin layers contains sweat and oil glands, hair follicles, blood vessels, and nerve endings?
     A.) dermis
     B.) epidermis
     C.) sebaceous
     D.) subcutaneous
What layer of the skin is composed of fatty tissue and serves as an insulator for the body?
     A.) epidermis
     B.) subcutaneous
     C.) dermal
     D.) sebaceous
Which of the following is NOT a function of the skin?
     A.) sensory reception
     B.) temperature regulation
     C.) metabolic coordination
     D.) pressure and pain perception
Which of the following organs is NOT part of the digestive system?
     A.) kidney
     B.) pancreas
     C.) stomach
     D.) gallbladder
The __________ fills the entire anteroposterior depth of the right upper quadrant (RUQ) of the abdomen.
     A.) liver
     B.) spleen
     C.) pancreas
     D.) stomach
Which organ lies in the lateral and posterior portion of the left upper quadrant (LUQ) of the abdomen?
     A.) liver
     B.) stomach
     C.) cecum
     D.) spleen
Which of the following organs or structures lies within the retroperitoneal space?
     A.) spleen
     B.) kidneys
     C.) gallbladder
     D.) abdominal aorta
The kidneys and pancreas are called retroperitoneal organs because they...
     A.) are protected by the anterior rib cage.
     B.) are located behind the abdominal cavity.
     C.) sit in front of the liver, spleen, and stomach.
     D.) lie just anterior to the costovertebral angle.
The exocrine gland of the pancreas secretes...
     A.) bile.
     B.) insulin.
     C.) pancreatic juice.
     D.) glucose.
Bile is produced by the liver and concentrated and stored in the...
     A.) kidneys.
     B.) pancreas.
     C.) stomach.
     D.) gallbladder.
The primary organ responsible for absorption of products of digestion is the...
     A.) pancreas.
     B.) gallbladder.
     C.) small intestine.
     D.) large intestine.
Which of the following systems is responsible for releasing hormones that regulate body activities?
     A.) skeletal
     B.) nervous
     C.) endocrine
     D.) reproductive
Abnormalities in metabolism are MOST likely caused by dysfunction of the...
     A.) pancreas.
     B.) thyroid gland.
     C.) adrenal gland.
     D.) parathyroid gland.
Which of the following glands regulates the function of all other endocrine glands in the body?
     A.) thyroid
     B.) pituitary
     C.) adrenal
     D.) parathyroid
Which of the following statements regarding the kidneys is correct?
     A.) The kidneys eliminate toxic waste products from the body and control its balance of water and salt.
     B.) Both kidneys are located in the anterior abdominal cavity and lie in between the liver and the spleen.
     C.) Since the kidneys require little oxygen, only 5% of your blood volume passes through them each minute.
     D.) A series of small blood vessels attach the kidneys directly to the superior vena cava and renal arteries.
Urine is transported from the kidneys to the urinary bladder via the...
     A.) prostate.
     B.) ureters.
     C.) urethra.
     D.) renal duct.
What is the function of the fallopian tubes?
     A.) connect both ovaries together
     B.) supply blood to the uterine lining
     C.) produce progesterone and estrogen
     D.) transport a mature egg to the uterus
Large amounts of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is generated when...
     A.) the cells function without oxygen.
     B.) circulating blood glucose levels fall.
     C.) the cells function with adequate oxygen.
     D.) carbon dioxide levels in the blood are high.
The waste products of aerobic metabolism include...
     A.) ATP and glucose.
     B.) glucose and lactic acid.
     C.) uric acid and nitrogen.
     D.) carbon dioxide and water.
Which of the following statements regarding anaerobic metabolism is correct?
     A.) Anaerobic metabolism can be supported in most of the body’s cells for up to 10 minutes.
     B.) Anaerobic metabolism produces lactic acid and occurs when cellular oxygen is limited.
     C.) The body functions optimally and produces maximum ATP during anaerobic metabolism.
     D.) Without anaerobic metabolism, perfusion to the body would suffer and cellular death would occur.
Pathophysiology is the study of the functional changes that occur when the body reacts to a particular...
     A.) medication.
     B.) assessment.
     C.) disease.
     D.) protocol.
The air you breathe is _______ oxygen, and the air you exhale is _______ oxygen.
     A.) 16%, 25%
     B.) 21%, 16%
     C.) 25%, 32%
     D.) 21%, 35%