Chapter 5-2 - The Human Body (Test Questions)

kanarufa's version from 2017-08-04 20:36

General Knowledge

Question Answer
Which of the following statements regarding smooth muscle is correct?
     A.) A person has no voluntary control over smooth muscle.
     B.) Smooth muscle is found exclusively within blood vessels.
     C.) The biceps and quadriceps are examples of smooth muscle.
     D.) Smooth muscle is under control of the voluntary nervous system.
Which of the following structures does NOT contain smooth muscle?
     A.) blood vessels
     B.) urinary system
     C.) skeletal system
     D.) gastrointestinal tract
Skeletal muscle is also called...
     A.) smooth muscle.
     B.) autonomic muscle.
     C.) voluntary muscle.
     D.) involuntary muscle.
A by-product of involuntary muscle contraction and relaxation is...
     A.) heat.
     B.) oxygen.
     C.) nitrogen.
     D.) lactic acid.
Which of the following is a function of the upper airway?
     A.) relaxes bronchiole smooth muscle
     B.) exchanges oxygen and carbon dioxide
     C.) creates sound from vocal cord vibration
     D.) warms and humidifies inhaled air
The vocal cords are located in the...
     A.) larynx.
     B.) pharynx.
     C.) oropharynx.
     D.) nasopharynx
The leaf-shaped flap of tissue that prevents food and liquid from entering the trachea during swallowing is called the...
     A.) uvula.
     B.) epiglottis.
     C.) vallecula.
     D.) pharynx.
The firm cartilaginous ring that forms the inferior portion of the larynx is called the...
     A.) costal cartilage.
     B.) cricoid cartilage.
     C.) thyroid cartilage.
     D.) laryngo cartilage.
Together, the right and left lungs contain how many lobes?
     A.) three
     B.) four
     C.) five
     D.) six
As the bronchus divides into smaller bronchioles, the terminal ends of these smaller passages form the...
     A.) pleura.
     B.) alveoli.
     C.) bronchi.
     D.) capillaries.
The diaphragm is a unique muscle because it...
     A.) is the exclusive muscle of breathing.
     B.) does not receive impulses from the brain.
     C.) is both a voluntary and involuntary muscle.
     D.) does not have striations like skeletal muscle.
The diaphragm and intercostal muscles contract during...
     A.) inhalation.
     B.) exhalation.
     C.) respiration.
     D.) ventilation.
Negative pressure breathing involves...
     A.) relaxing the respiratory muscles.
     B.) a drop in pressure within the chest cavity.
     C.) pushing or forcing air into the lungs.
     D.) increasing airway resistance during breathing.
How does respiration differ from ventilation?
     A.) Ventilation occurs when air is forced into the lungs, whereas respiration occurs when air is drawn or sucked into the lungs.
     B.) Respiration occurs when the diaphragm and intercostal muscles contract, whereas ventilation occurs when those same muscles relax.
     C.) Respiration occurs when oxygen is delivered to the cells of the body, whereas ventilation occurs when carbon dioxide is removed.
     D.) Respiration is the process of gas exchange, whereas ventilation is the simple movement of air between the lungs and the environment.
Oxygen and carbon dioxide pass across the alveolar membrane in the lungs through a process called...
     A.) osmosis.
     B.) breathing.
     C.) diffusion.
     D.) ventilation.
Breathing occurs as the result of a(n)...
     A.) decrease in oxygen, which increases the pH of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF).
     B.) increase in oxygen, which decreases the pH of the CSF.
     C.) decrease in carbon dioxide, which increases the pH of the CSF.
     D.) increase in carbon dioxide, which decreases the pH of the CSF.
Which of the following statements regarding the medulla oblongata is correct?
     A.) The medulla reduces the rate and depth of breathing if it detects an increase in carbon dioxide levels.
     B.) The medulla is sensitive to pH changes and sends messages via the phrenic nerve to contract the diaphragm.
     C.) The medulla’s primary role is to increase your level of oxygen, not to decrease your level of carbon dioxide.
     D.) The medulla is a portion of the cerebrum and primarily responds to an increase in the pH of CSF.
Relative to the adult’s airway, the child’s...
     A.) tongue takes up less space in the pharynx.
     B.) pharynx is smaller and less deeply curved.
     C.) trachea is smaller, softer, and less flexible.
     D.) mouth and nose are proportionately larger.
The backup system of respiratory control, which is based on low concentrations of oxygen in the blood, is called the...
     A.) hypoxic drive.
     B.) pneumotaxic drive.
     C.) hypocarbic drive.
     D.) oxyhemoglobin drive.
The dorsal respiratory group (DRG) is a part of the brain stem and is responsible for...
     A.) initiating inspiration.
     B.) inhibiting deep inspiration.
     C.) controlling expiration.
     D.) decreasing respiratory depth.
Which of the following signs of respiratory distress is typically unique to infants and children?
     A.) seesaw respirations
     B.) unequal breath sounds
     C.) unequal chest expansion
     D.) irregular breathing pattern
What function does the pneumotaxic center serve?
     A.) stimulates the DRG, resulting in prolonged inspiration
     B.) inhibits the DRG, but only affects the respiratory rate
     C.) inhibits the DRG, resulting in shorter, faster respirations
     D.) stimulates the DRG, resulting in longer, slower respirations
Both areas of the pons are used to...
     A.) provide forced inspiration or expiration as needed.
     B.) augment respirations during emotional or physical stress.
     C.) ensure that the lungs do not overinflate during breathing.
     D.) set the base rate and depth of breathing in a healthy person.
The Hering-Breuer reflex is stimulated when...
     A.) excess carbon dioxide needs to be eliminated from the body.
     B.) stretch receptors in the chest wall detect that the lungs are too full.
     C.) the DRG stops and the process of expiration begins.
     D.) the brain stem senses that there is a low amount of oxygen in the blood.
The amount of air that remains in the lungs simply to keep them open is called...
     A.) tidal volume.
     B.) residual volume.
     C.) inspiratory reserve volume.
     D.) expiratory reserve volume.
Dead space is the portion of the respiratory system that...
     A.) includes the alveoli and capillaries surrounding the alveoli.
     B.) must be filled with air before gas exchange can take place.
     C.) receives oxygen but is unable to release carbon dioxide.
     D.) contains no alveoli and does not participate in gas exchange.
If an average-sized patient’s chest barely moves during inhalation, even if his or her respiratory rate is normal, you should suspect that...
     A.) minute volume is decreased.
     B.) inspiratory reserve is increased.
     C.) overall tidal volume is increased.
     D.) expiratory reserve volume is decreased.
What is the minute volume of a patient with a tidal volume of 500 mL, a dead space volume of 150 mL, and a respiratory rate of 16 breaths/min?
     A.) 5,600 mL
     B.) 6,000 mL
     C.) 7,200 mL
     D.) 8,000 mL
Signs of adequate breathing in the adult include all of the following, EXCEPT...
     A.) a reduction in tidal volume.
     B.) respirations of 20 breaths/min.
     C.) bilaterally clear breath sounds.
     D.) rhythmic inhalation and exhalation.
Which of the following is MOST characteristic of adequate breathing in an adult?
     A.) use of the accessory muscles in the neck and cyanosis
     B.) respirations of 30 breaths/min and reduced tidal volume
     C.) cool, clammy skin and retractions above the clavicles
     D.) respirations of 20 breaths/min and bilateral chest movement
Which of the following statements regarding agonal respirations is correct?
     A.) Agonal respirations result in excessive tidal volume.
     B.) Agonal respirations typically occur before the heart stops.
     C.) Agonal respirations are ineffective and need to be assisted.
     D.) Agonal respirations are characterized by fast irregular breaths.
The heart muscle is called the...
     A.) epicardium.
     B.) myocardium.
     C.) pericardium.
     D.) endocardium.
Which of the following statements regarding the heart is correct?
     A.) It is under control of the autonomic nervous system.
     B.) It can tolerate an interruption of oxygen for 5 minutes.
     C.) It receives its blood supply from the pulmonary arteries.
     D.) It relies on an external electrical source to correctly function.
The primary function of the right atrium is to...
     A.) receive blood from the vena cava.
     B.) pump blood to the pulmonary artery.
     C.) receive blood from the pulmonary veins.
     D.) pump blood to the lungs for reoxygenation.
Contraction of the right ventricle causes...
     A.) closure of the mitral and aortic valves.
     B.) a return of blood from the pulmonary veins.
     C.) blood to flow into the pulmonary circulation.
     D.) ejection of blood into the systemic circulation.
The left side of the heart receives oxygenated blood from the lungs through the...
     A.) pulmonary veins.
     B.) pulmonary arteries.
     C.) inferior venae cavae.
     D.) superior venae cavae.
At rest, the normal adult heart rate should not exceed...
     A.) 70 beats/min.
     B.) 80 beats/min.
     C.) 90 beats/min.
     D.) 100 beats/min.
During each heartbeat, ___________ of blood is ejected from the adult heart. This is called stroke volume (SV).
     A.) 40 to 50 mL
     B.) 70 to 80 mL
     C.) 90 to 100 mL
     D.) 100 to 120 mL
Cardiac output (CO) is affected by...
     A.) heart rate only.
     B.) stroke volume only.
     C.) stroke volume and heart rate.
     D.) the patient’s blood pressure.
The electrical impulse of the heart normally begins at the...
     A.) sinoatrial node.
     B.) bundle of His.
     C.) Purkinje fibers.
     D.) atrioventricular node.
What happens when blood volume is lost from the body?
     A.) Arterial blood is diverted to the skin and muscles.
     B.) The veins dilate to increase systemic perfusion.
     C.) Widespread vasodilation causes blood pressure to decrease.
     D.) The arteries contract to increase the blood pressure.
The major artery that supplies all other arteries with blood is the...
     A.) aorta.
     B.) carotid.
     C.) brachial.
     D.) femoral.
Which of the following are central pulses?
     A.) femoral and carotid
     B.) brachial and radial
     C.) temporal and pedal
     D.) popliteal and ulnar
Which of the following arteries does NOT carry highly oxygenated blood?
     A.) aorta
     B.) renal
     C.) femoral
     D.) pulmonary
The artery that can be palpated on the anterior surface of the foot is the...
     A.) ventral pedis.
     B.) dorsalis pedis.
     C.) anterior tibial.
     D.) posterior tibial.
The exchange of oxygen and nutrients for waste products of metabolism occurs at the cellular level in the...
     A.) venules.
     B.) arteries.
     C.) arterioles.
     D.) capillaries.
The descending aorta branches into the...
     A.) deep femoral arteries.
     B.) internal carotid arteries.
     C.) common iliac arteries.
     D.) external carotid arteries.