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CHAPTER 4

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tasnimjaisee's version from 2017-05-23 05:46

Section

Question Answer
Central NSbrain and spinal cord
Peripheral NSSensory and motor nerves
Somatic NSConnects sensory receptors to skeletal muscles
Afferent nervescarries info from sensory organs to CNS
Efferent nervescarries info from CNS to sensory organs
Autonomic NSRegulates glands and organs made of afferents
Sympathetic NSMobilizes resources and increases energy output during emotional stages
Parasympathetic NSOperates during relaxed states and conserves energy
NeuronElectrochemical signals; basic unit of nervous cell (look like snowflakes)
GliaSupport neurons and cleans up after them dying
How many cells are in the brain171Billion
DendritesActs like antennas recieving messages from 10k other cells (look like branches)
Cell bodyHas a nucleus wutg DBA cintrolling growth and reproduction, keeps neuron alive (look like sphere/pyramid)
AxonTransmits message from cell body to other cells
Axon TeriminalsDivide at the axon end
Myelin sheathLayer of fat covering axon (in CNS made of gials)
NodesDivides myelin sheath into segments
What are "nerves" made of ?Axons and dendrites in PNS
How many pairs of peripheral nerves are there?43
How many Cranial nerve pairs are there ?12
NeurogenesisNew neurons from immature stem cells
Embryonic stems are p____ ?pluripotent
Induced pluripotent cellsAre from adult cells but are hard to keep alive
Synaptic cleftAxon terminal of one neuron touches dendrite/ cell body of another
Synapsenerve umpulse
Action potentialWhen stimulated neuron, sodium ions rush in increasing positivity --> electrical impulse
If axon is unmyelinatedEach axon gives action potential, like domino falling
If axon is myelinatedNa and K can't cross membrane except between nodes, AP hops from one node to another
Are nerve impulses slower in children?Yes because Myelin sheath hasn't developed
NeurotransmitterChemical released by neuron at synapse altering neuron activity
Synaptic vesiclesrelease neurotransmitter
How neurons communicateOccurs at synapse, When action potential reaches end of axon, neurotransmitters get released into synaptic cleft. When these molecules bind to receptor sites on recieving neurons, they are less to fire. Message reaches final area depending on neuron's firing behaviour
Neurotransmitter carrierVersitle messangers
GABAgamma aminobutyric acid, inhibitory Neurotransmitter in brain
Glutamate excitatory Neurotransmitter
Acetylcholinemuscle action, cognition, memory and emotion
Norepinephrine↑ heart rate ; ↓ intestine activity in stress
Which neurotransmitter causes alzheimer?lack of Acetylcholine
Which neurotransmitter causes parkinsons?lack of dopemine
Which neurotransmitter causes alzheimer?lack of Acetylcholine
Which neurotransmitter causes multiple sclerosis?↑ of glutamate killing glials who make mylin
Hormone carrierslong-distant messengers
Endoctorine glandsproduce hormones and release into blood
MelatoninMade by pineal gland in brain; biological rhythms like sleep
OxytocinMade by pituitary gland; for uterine contraction and breastfeeding, with vasopressin promotes attachment
Adrenal hormoneMade by adrenal gland above kidney; emotion and stress
CartisolMade by outer part of adrenal gland; ↑ blood-sugar and energy levels
EpinephrineMade by inner part of adrenal gland; Arousal level for action
Sex HormonesMade by gonad tissues and adrenal glands
Sex Hormones: AndrogenMasculinizing (ex. testosterone)
Sex Hormones: EstrogenFeminizing
Sex Hormones: ProgesteroneMaintains uterine lining for fertilization
Does Progesterone and Estrogen fluctuation causes mood shifts ?No
Neuromodulatorsbrain's volume control
Seratonin transportertype of neuromodulator; picks up seratonin from cleft
endorphinsType of endogenous oploid peptides; reduce pain
Transcranial magnetic stimulationVirtual lesion; Current through wire on head / Used for motor response triggers / Con: hard to tell which neuron is at work
Transcranial dirrect current stimulationElectric current on cortex, area is temporarily toyed with
electroencephalogramReflects too many activites, hearabele
Event related potentialsrecords waves associated with stimuli, can't know where but can know when
Position emission tomographyAnalyzying brain chemistry by injecting gucose-like substances like radioactive elements
Magnetic resonance imagingstudying brain tissue with magnet fields and radio receivers
Functional magnetic resonance imagingUsed for brain activies associated with thoughts
Issues with brain scannersMisleading colors, can be gullibly "scientifically reasoned", poor procedure correlation ex. sound interference
Brain stem has 2 partsPons and Medula
PonsSleeping, walking and dreaming
MedulaFunctions that don't have to be willed (ex. heart and breathing rates)
Reticular activating stemArouses cortex and streams new information
CerebellumMovement and balance
ThalamusPuts sensory messages to their needed place excluding smell
Olfactory bulbMaintains smells
HypothalamusMaintains homestasis
Pituitary GlandHypothalamus sends chemicals to gland for other endocrine glands
HippocampusStores information
CerebrumHigherthinking
LateralizationSpecialization of 2 halves of cerebrum hemispheres
Occipital lobesIn the lower back of brain, has visual cortex
Parietal lobesIn the brain's top, has somatosensory cortex, feels pressure and awareness of spatial relations
Temporal lobesIn the side's of brain above ears and behind temples, has auditory cortex and memories
Wernicke's arealanguage comprehension in temporal lobes
Broca's areaSpeech production
Prefrontal cortexContains personality; Phineas Gage story
What parts of the cat brains were lesionedcorpus callosum
Oculomotorpupil's reaction to light
trochleardown/in eye movements
trigeminaljaw movements
Aducenlateral eye movement
Vestibulocochlearhearing and body motion
glossopharyngealgag reflex
Vagusvoice
hypoglossaltounge
CNS is covered byMeninges
Meningesdura (held by periostium), arachnoid, pia
How many ventricles are in the brain4
Chlorid plexusescome out from pia
Areas that don't have BBBposterior pituitary, area postrema
Interneuronsno axons
Oligodendragialmylenate for CNS several at a time
schwannmylenate for PNS one at a time
Factors effective ion distributioneven - random motion, electrostasis AND uneven - selectively permiable, NA&P pump (3Na out and 2K+ in)
telencephalonlargest division, deals with emotions
basal gangliafine motor skills
septumconnects to amygdala and others, results in aggression
3 parts to amygdalacentral lateral basial
Central cortexfrontal, parietal lobes
Frontal lobesHas motor cortext and ability to plan things
Parietal lobesposition of body in enviornment
Temporal lobesfear and agression
Superior temporal gyruslanguage
Inferior temporal gyrusvisual patters
Medial temporal gyrussome memories
post central gyrussensation from body
Prefrontal cortical regioncomplex cognition
Lateral ganiculate nucleusvisual info
Medial ganiculate nucleusaudio info
Ventral posterior Nucleussenses info
posterior intramural nucleuspain info
reticular formationreflexes
fibre tactacarries signals
tectumroof
tegmentusventral as textum
inferior colliculiaudio
superior colliculivisual
central tegmental areaeffects and addictions
red nucleusbalance
periaqueductal graypain
mesocorticolimbic dopamine systemstress
memorize