Chapter 4 Tissues

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Chapter four Tissues

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The four primary tissue typesepithelia, connective, nervous and muscular
tissuesgroups of cells similar in structure and function
epithelial tissue (epithelium)a sheet of cells that covers a body surface or lines a body cavity
Six special characteristics of epitheliumpolarity, specialized contacts, supported by connective tissue, avascular but innervated, regenerative, cellularity
cellularitycomposed almost entirely of cells
special contactsform continuous sheets held together by tight junctions and desmosomes
polarityapical and basal surfaces
supported by connective tissueareolar and basal lamina
avascular but innervatedcontains no blood vessels but supplied by nerve fibers
regenerativerapidly replaces lost cells by cell division
What does the first name of epithelium tissue represent?indicates the number of cell layers present
What does the second name of epithelium tissue represent?describes the shape of the cells
The two types of cell layer for epithelial tissuesimple or stratified
simple epitheliaconsist of a single cell layer, found where absorption, secretion, and filtration occur
stratified epitheliacomposed of two or more cell layers stacked one on top of the other, common in high-abrasion areas where protection is important
The three specific shapes of epithelia cellssquamous cells, cuboidal cells, columnar cells
squamous cellsflattened and scalelike
cuboidal cellsboxlike, approximately as tall as they are wide
columnar cells tall and column shape


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what function are simple epithelia most concerned withabsorption, secretion, filtration
Description of simple squamous epitheliumsingle layer of flattened cells with disc-shaped central nuclei and sparse cytoplasm; the simples of the epithelia
Function of simple squamous epitheliumallows passage of materials by diffusion and filtration in sites where protection is not important; secretes lubricating substances in serosae
Location of simple squamous epitheliumkidney glomeruli; air sacs of lungs; lining of heart, blood vessels, and lymphatic vessels. lining of ventral body cavity (serosae)


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Description of simple cuboidal epitheliumsingle layer of cube-like cells with large, spherical central nuclei
Function of simple cuboidal epitheliumsecretion and absorption
Location of simple cuboidal epitheliumkidney tubules; ducts and secretory portions of small glands; ovary surface


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Description of simple columnar epitheliumsingle layer of tall cells with round to oval nuclei; some cells bear cilia; layer may contain mucus-secreting unicellular glands (goblet cells)
Function of simple columnar epitheliumabsorption; secretion of mucus, enzymes, and other substances; ciliated type propels mucus (or reproductive cells) by ciliary action
Location of columnar epitheliumnonciliated type lines most of the digestive tract (stomach to anal canal), gallbladder, and excretory ducts of some glands; ciliated variety lines small bronchi, uterine tubes, and some regions of the uterus.


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Description of pseudostratified columnar epitheliumsingle layer of cells of differing heights, some not reaching the free surface; nuclei seen at different levels; may contain mucus-secreting cells and bear cilia
function of pseudostratified columnar epitheliumsecretion, particularly of mucus; propulsion of mucus by ciliary action
Location of pseudostratified columnar epitheliumnonciliated type in male''s sperm-carrying ducts and ducts of large glands; ciliated variety lines the trachea, most of the upper respiratory tract


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Description of stratified squamous epitheliumthick membrane composed of several cell layers; basal cells are cuboidal or columnar and metabolically active; surface cells are flattened (squamous); in the keratinized type, the surface cells are full of keratin and dead; basal cells are active in mitosis and produce the cells of the more superficial layers
Function of stratifed squamous epitheliumprotects underlying tissues in areas subjected to abrasion
Location of stratified squamous epitheliumnonkeratinized type forms the moist lining of the esophagus, mouth, and vagina; keratinized variety forms the epidermis of the skin, a dry membrane


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Description of transitional epitheliumresembles both stratified squamous and stratified cuboidal; basal cells cuboidal or columnar; surface cells dome shaped or squamouslike, depending on degree of organ stretch
Function of transitional epitheliumstretches readily and permits distension of urinary organ by contained urine.
Location of transitional epitheliumlines the ureters, urinary bladder, and part of the urethra


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Description of stratified cuboidal epitheliano stratified cuboidal epithelia


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Description of stratified columnar epitheliumhas a limited distribution in the body, several cell layers with cuboidal basal cells and columnar superficial cells
Function of stratified columnar epitheliumprotection and secretion
Location of stratified columnar epitheliumpresent in large ducts of some glands, and in portions of the male urethra. also in the pharynx and granular ducts


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glandconsists of one or more cells that make and secrete a particular product(aqueous fluid)
secretionan active process that transforms substances into a product that is then discharged from the cell
The four ways that glands are classifiedendocrine(internally secreting) exocrine(externally secreting), relative number of cells forming the gland- unicellular, or multicellular


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endocrine glandsglands that release regulatory substances such as hormones directly into the bloodstream. (exocytosis)
What outcome do endocrine glands have?they affect how the body uses food (metabolism). they also influence other body functions. example- the pancreas which releases insulin so the body can use sugar for energy
Ducts of the endocrine glandeventually lose their ducts, and they are considered ductless
Exocrine glandsmore numerous than endocrine glands, glands that secrete their products onto body surfaces(skin) or into body cavities
Examples of exocrine glandsmucous, sweat , oil, and salivary glands
What is the only important unicellular gland?the goblet cell
What type of exocrine gland is composed of a duct and secretory unit?multicellular exocrine glands
Tow basic parts of multicellular exocrine glandsmulticellular exocrine glands are composed of a duct and secretory unit
How are multicellular exocrine glands classified? (2 things)classified according to 1. simple or compound duct type, 2. structure of their secretory units
Glands-modes of secretion (2 ways)Merocrine, and Holocrine
Merocrineproducts are secreted by exocytosis (e.g. pancreas, sweat, and salivary glands)
Holocrineproducts are secreted by the rupture of gland cells (e.g. sebaceous [oil] glands)


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Four types of Connective Tissue found throughout the body1. connective tissue proper, 2. cartilage, 3. bone, 4. blood
Functions of the 4 types of connective tissuebinding and support, protection, insulation, transportation
Characteristics of Connective tissueconnective tissues have- 1. mesenchyme as their common tissue of origin 2. varying degrees of vascularity 3. non-living extracellular matrix, consisting of ground substance and fibers
What are the three structural elements of connective tissue1. ground substance 2. fibers 3. cells
Ground substanceunstructured material that fills the space between cells
fibers (connective tissue)collagen, elastic, reticular
cells (connective tissue)fibroblasts, chondroblasts, osteoblasts, and hematopoietic stem cells
collagen fiberstough; provides high tensile strength
elastic fiberslong, thin fibers that allow for stretch
reticular fibersbranched collagenous fibers that form delicate networks
Fibroblasts are found in what tissue?connective tissue proper
chondroblasts are found in what tissue?cartilage
osteoblasts ar found in what tissue?bone
Hematopoietic stem cells are found in what tissue?blood
White blood cells (WBCs), plasma cells, macrophages, and mast cells are found where?everywhere (fight disease)


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Definition of Embryonic connective tissue (what cells and what fibers)gel-likeground substance with fibers and star-shaped mesenchymal cells
Function of embryonic connective tissuegives rise to all other connective tissues
Location of embryonic connective tissuefound in the embryo


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Definitions of Areolar connective tissue (loose connective tissue proper) (what cells and what fibers)gel-like matrix with all three connective tissue fibers (collagen, elastic, reticular) cells (fibroblasts, macrophages, mast cells, and some WBCs)
Function of areolar connective tissuewraps and cushions organs
Location of areolar connective tissuewidely distributed throughout the body


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Definition of Adipose connective tissue (loose connective tissue proper) (what cells and what fibers)matrix similar to areolar connective tissue with closely packed adipocytes-(cells) and fat cells and fibroblasts.
Function of adipose connective tissuereserve food stores, insulates against heat loss, and supports and protects
Location of adipose connective tissuefound under skin, around kidneys, within abdomen, and in breasts


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Definition of reticular connective tissue (loose connective tissue proper) (what cells and what fibers)loose ground substance with reticular fibers and reticular cells that lie in a fiber network
Function of reticular connective tissueforms a soft internal skeleton, or stroma, that supports other cell types
Location of reticular connective tissuefound in lymph nodes, bone marrow, and the spleen (in the immune system)
*reticular cells are?fibroblast cells clumped together


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Dense Regular connective tissue proper (what cells and what fibers)parallel collagen fibers with few elastic fibers, major cell type is fibroblasts
Function of dense regular connective tissue properattaches muscles to bone or to other muscles, and bone to bone
Location of dense regular connective tissue properfound in tendons ligaments, and aponeuroses


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Dense Irregular connective tissue proper (what cells and what fibers)irregularly arranged collagen fibers with some elastic fibers, major cell type is fibroblasts
Function of dense irregular connective tissue properwithstands tension in many directions providing structural providing structural strength
Location of dense irregular connective tissue properfound in the dermis (lower layer of the skin) submucosa of the digestive tract, and fibrous organ capsules


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Hyaline cartilage (cartilage connective tissue) (what cells and what fibers)Amorphous, firm matrix with imperceptible network of collagen fibers, and chondrocytes (cells) which are in lacunae
Function of hyaline cartilagesupports, reinforces, cushions and resists compression
What does hyaline cartilage form?forms the costal cartilage
Location of hyaline cartilageFound in- embryonic skeleton, the end of long bones, nose, trachea, and larynx
Chondrocytes look like what?eyes


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Elastic cartilage (connective tissue cartilage) (what cells and what fibers)Similar to hyaline cartilage but with more elastic fibers, and with chondrocyte cells
Function of elastic cartilagemaintains shape and structure while allowing flexibility
Location of elastic cartilagesupports external ear (pinna) and the epiglottis


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Fibrocartilage (cartilage connective tissue) (what cells and what fibers)Matrix similar to hyaline but less firm with thick collagen fiber, and chondrocyte cells- strongest of the three
Function of fibrocartilageprovides tensile strength and absorbs compression shock
Location of fibrocartilagefound in intervertebral discs, the pubic symphysis, and in discs of the knee joint


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Osseous tissue (connective tissue bone) (what cells and what fibers)hard, calcified matrix with collagen fibers found in bone, osteocytes (cells) are found in lacunae and are well vascularized
Function of osseous tissuesupports, protects, and provides levers for muscular action- stores calcium, minerals
Location of osseous tissuemarrow inside bones is the site of hematopoiesis


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Blood (connective tissue) Locationred and white cells in a fluid matrix (plasma)- contained within blood vessels
Function of bloodfunctions in the transport of respiratory gases, nutrients, and wastes
Cutaneous is another name for what?skin
What is the membrane that covers the skin?cutaneous membrane


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Mucous (epithelial membrane)lines body cavities open to the exterior (e.g. digestive and respiratory tracts)
What are some mucous membranes?mucosa of nasal cavity, mucosa of mouth, esophagus lining, mucosa of lung bronchi
Serous (epithelial membrane)moist membranes found in closed ventral body cavity
What do serous membranes consist of?simple squamous epithelium, thin layer of loose connective tissue
List the Serous membranesParietal peritoneum, visceral peritoneum, parietal pericardium, visceral pericardium, parietal pleura, visceral pleura


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Description of Nervous Tissueneurons are branching cells; cell processes that may be quite long extend from the nucleus-containing cell body; also contributing to nervous tissue are non irritable supporting cells
Function of nervous tissuetransmit electrical signals from sensory receptors and to effectors (muscles and glands) which control their activity.
Location of nervous tissuebrain, spinal cord, and nerves


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The three types of muscle tissueskeletal, cardiac, smooth
Description of Skeletal muscle tissuelong, cylindrical, multinucleate cells, obvious striations
Function of skeletal muscle tissuevoluntary movement; locomotion; manipulation of the environment; facial expression; voluntary control
Location of skeletal muscleIn skeletal muscles attached to bones or occasionally to skin
Description of Cardiac Musclebranching, striated, generally uninucleate cells that interdigitate at specialized junctions (intercalated discs)
Function of cardiac muscleas it contracts, it propels blood into the circulation; involuntary control
Location of cardiac musclethe walls of the heart
Description of Smooth Musclespindle-shaped cells with central nuclei, no striations; cells arranged closely to form sheets.
Function of smooth musclepropels substances or objects (foodstuffs, ruine, a baby) along internal passageways; involuntary control
Location of smooth musclemostly in the walls of hollow organs