Chapter 4 Terms and Definitions

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Section 1

Question Answer
ConsiousnessThe state of being aware of oneself, one's thoughts and/or environment; includes various levels of conscious awareness
Automatic Processing Refers to the processing of information with little no conscious effort: detection, encoding, and sometimes storage of information without awareness
Selective Attention The ability to focus awareness on a small segment of information that is available through our sensory system
Circadian Rhythm The daily patterns roughly following the 24 hour cycle of daylight and darkness: 24 hour cycle of physiological and behavioral functioning
Beta Waves Brain waves that indicate an alert, aware state
Alpha WavesBrain waves that indicate a relaxed, drowsy state
Non-Rapid Eye MovementThe nondreaming sleep that occurs during sleep, stages 1-4
Theta WavesBrain waves that indicate the early stage of sleep
Delta WavesBrain waves that indicate deep sleep
Rapid Eye MovementThe stage of sleep associated with dreaming; sleep characterized by bursts of eye movements, with brain activity similar to that of a waking state, but with a lack of muscle tone
NarcolepsyA neurological disorder characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness,which includes lapses into sleep and napping
REM Sleep Behavior DisorderA sleep disturbance in which the mechanism responsible for paralyzing the body during REM sleep is not functioning, resulting in the acting out of dreams
Obstructive Sleep Apnea HypopneaA serious disturbance of non rem sleep characterized by complete absence of air flow or reduced air flow
Insomnia Sleep disorder characterized by an inability to fall asleep or stay asleep, impacting both the quality and the quantity of sleep
Sleep Terrors A disturbance of non REM sleep, generally occurring in children; characterized by screaming, staring fearfully and usually no memory of the episode the following morning
NightmaresFrightening dreams that occur during REM sleep

Section 2

Question Answer
REM ReboundAn increased amount of sleep in the REM stage with the first sleep session following sleep deprivation
Manifest ContentThe apparent meaning of a dream; the remembered story line of a dream
Latent ContentThe hidden meaning of a dream, often concealed by the manifest content of a dream
Activation Synthesis ModelThis theory proposes that humans respond to random neutral activity while in REM sleep as if it has meaning
Psychoactive Drugs Substances that can cause changes in psychological activities such as sensation, perception, attention, judgment, memory, self-control, emotion, thinking and behavior; substances that cause changes in conscious experiences
Depressants A class of psychoactive drugs that depress or slow down activity in the CNS
Barbiturate Depressant drug that decreases neural activity and reduces anxiety; a type of sedative
Opioids A class of psychoactive drugs that minimizes perceptions of pain
Opiates A class of psychoactive drugs that cause a sense of euphoria; a drug that imitates the endorphins naturally produced in the brain
Stimulants A class of drugs that increase neural activity in the CNS
Amphetamines Stimulant drugs; methamphetamine falls in this class of drugs
Hallucinogens A group of psychoactive drugs that can produce hallucinations, distorted sensory experiences, alterations of mood and distorted thinking
Lysergic Acid Diethylamide LSDA synthetically produced odorless, tasteless and colorless hallucinogen that is very potent; produces extreme changes in sensations and perceptions
MDMAA synthetic drug chemically similar to the stimulant methamphetamine and the hallucinogen mescaline; produces a combination of stimulant and hallucinogenic effects

Section 3

Question Answer
THCThe active ingredient of marijuana
Physiological Dependence With constant use of some psychoactive drugs, the body no longer functions normally without the drug
Withdrawal With constant use of some psychoactive drugs, a condition in which the body becomes dependent and then reacts when the drug is withheld
Delirium Tremens DTs Withdrawal Symptoms that can occur when a heavy drinker suddenly stops or significantly cuts down alcohol consumption; can include sweating, restlessness, hallucinations, severe tremors and seizures
Tolerance With constant use of some psychoactive drugs, a condition in which the body requires more and more of the drug to create the original effect, a sign of physiological dependence
Psychological DependenceWith constant use of some psychoactive drugs, a strong desire or need to continue using the substance occurs without the evidence of tolerance or withdrawal symptoms
HypnosisAn altered state of consciousness allowing for changes in perceptions and behaviors, which result from suggestions made by a hypnotist

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