Chapter 3 Vocab

tavanozi's version from 2015-12-10 23:35


Question Answer
cell theoryall organisms are made of cells, all cells are produced by other cells, cell is most basic unit of life
cytoplasmjellylike substance inside cells that contains molecules and in some organelles
organellemembrane-bound structure that is specialized to perform a distinct process within a cell
prokaryotic celldoed not have a nucleus or membrane-bound organelles
eukaryotic cellhas a nucelus and other membrane-bound organelles
cytoskeletonnetwork of proteins inside a eukaryotic cell that supports the cell
nucleusorgenelle composed of a double membrane that acts as a storehouse for most of the cells DNA
endoplasmic reticulum (ER)interconnected network of thin, folded membranes that produce, process, and distribute proteins ("GPS" store)
ribosomeslinks amino acids to form proteins, float alone or attach to ER (cupped hand)
golgi complexstack of flat, membrane-enclosed spaces containing enzymes that process, sort, and deliver proteins
vesiclesmall organelle that contains and transports materials within cytoplasm
mitochondrionbean-shaped organelle that supplies energy to cell and has its own ribosomes and DNA
vacuolestores materials (water, food, enzymes) that are needed in the cell
lysosomescontains enzymes
centriolesmall cylinder-shaped organelle made of protein tubes arranged in a circle; aids mitosis
cell wallgives support, protection, and shape to cells in plants, algae, fungi, and bacteria
chloroplastcomposed of numerous membranes that are used to convert solar energy into chemical energy; contains chlorophyll
ciliashort hairlike structures that cover some or all of cell surface and help organism swim and capture food
chromosomelong, continuous thread of DNA that consists of numerous genes and regulatory information
flagellumwhiplike structure outside of a cell that is used for movement
cell membranedouble-layer of phospholipids that forms a boundary between a cell and surrounding environment and controls passage of materials in and out of cell
phospholipidmolecule that forms a double-layer of cell membrane (glycerol, phosphate group, two fatty acids)
fluid mosaic modeldescribes arrangement and movement of molecule in cell membrane
selective permeabilitycondition or quality of allowing some, but not all, materials to cross membrane
receptorprotein that detects a single molecule and peforms an action in response
passive transportmovement of molecules across membrane without energy impact from cell
diffusionmovement of dissolved molecules in a fluid or gas from a region of higher concentration to lower concentration region
concentration gradientdifference in concentration of a substance from one location to another
osmosisdiffusion of water molecules acreoss semipermeable membrane from an area of higher water concentration to lower concentration
isotonicsolution that has equal concentration of dissolved particles compared with another solution
hypotonicsolution that has lower concentration of dissolved particles compared with another solution
hypertonicsolution that has higher concentration of dissolved particles compared with another solution
facilitated diffusiondiffusion of molecules assisted by protein channels that pierce a cell membrane
active transportenergy requiring movement of molecules across a membrane from region of low concentration to high concentration
endocytosisuptake of liquids or large molecules into cell by inward folding of cell membrane
phagocytosisuptake of a solid particle into a cell by engulfing the particle
exocytosisrelease of substances out a cell by the fusion of a vesicle with the membrane