Chapter 29 heredity

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Question Answer
Distinguish between genotype and phenotype. (Genotype–genetic makeup) (Phenotype–expression of genotype, influenced by environment (characteristics that are observable) )
What are autosomes? What are the sex chromosomes? Autosomes- any chromosome that is not a sex chromosome. | Sex Chromosome- a chromosome involved with determining the sex of an organism, typically one of two kinds. 2 types of sex chromosome are x and y.
True or False: The genetic sex of a child is determined by the father. True
Approximately what percentage of our DNA sequence actually encodes protein? 1.5%
Except for gametes, all cells in the human body normally contain ______ chromosomes. Or how many pairs. 46, 23 pairs
What does a karyotype show? set of diploid chromosomes displayed in homologous pairs and it is used to diagnose genetic disorders.
Define alleleone of two or more alternative forms of a gene that arise by mutation and are found at the same place on a chromosome.
Define Homozygouswhen a cell has two identical copies of a gene.
Define Heterozygousrefers to a pair of genes where one is dominant and one is recessive
List 3 cellular events that contribute to genetic variation. 1)Independent assortment of chromosomes 2)Crossover of homologues 3)Random fertilization of eggs by sperm
In terms of survival of a species, why is genetic variation important? Genetic diversity plays an important role in the survival and adaptability of a species. When a population's habitat changes, the population may have to adapt to survive; the ability of the population to adapt to the changing environment will determine their ability to cope with an environmental challenge.
What is the probability of a father who has the genotype IAIB and a mother who has blood type O having a child who has blood type O? 0%
True or false: Currently, small RNAs have no known function in human biology? False
Mitochondrial DNA is inherited from the _______? Mother
Pleiotropic genes can lead to? Deafness, and or retardation
_______ is the use of a virus with a functional gene to infect gene to infect defective cells and alleviate a disorder. Gene therapy
Because they are transmitted as a unit to daughter cells, genes located close together on the same chromosome are _____. linked
Human skin color, height, and intelligence ("continuous" traits) are inherited by______.Polygene inheritance