Chapter 26 The World In Transition

Updated 2009-03-11 23:55

Section 3 "Toward a European Union"


Question Answer
1. Margaret ThatcherGreat Britain’s first woman prime minister and conservative party leader who aggressively introduced free marker measures.
2. John MajorThatcher’s successor who led a Conservative party increasingly divided over Great Britain’s ties to Europe.
3. Tony Blairthe new prime minister who moved away from Labour’s traditional socialism and favored low taxes, tightly controlled social spending, and closer ties to Europe.
4. Paddy Ashdownsaw benefits of Britain’s participation.
5. Sinn Feinthe IRA’s political wing that entered talks with British and Irish officials.
6. Francois MitterandFrance’s first Socialist president.
7. Willy Brandtchancellor of West Germany
8. Helmut SchmidtWilly Brandt’s successor
9. Jacques Chiraca conservative mayor of Paris who was elected president of France.
10. Helmut Kohla conservative chancellor; presided over the reunification of Germany following the collapse of communism in Eastern Europe.
11. Juan Carlos Iguided Spain into a new era of democracy as the new king.
12. Felipe Gonzalezleader of Spain’s democratic government
13. Jose Maria AznarSpanish voters replaced the Socialists with a conservative
14. Andreas Papandreoubrought Greece into the European Community.


Question Answer
1. Northern Irelandthe British-ruled province torn by divisions between Protestants and Catholics.
2. Cyprusa Mediterranean island republic divided between feuding Greek and Turkish communities


Question Answer
1. IRAIrish Republican Army; fought British rule by attacking British military forces and civilians in the province and in Great Britain.
2. European Communitythe Common Market broadened its activities to include political and financial affairs.
3. Treaty of Maastrichtsigned by The European Community in 1992; it set up the European Union; aimed to extend cooperation among members.
4. Single European Actended most obstacles to trade among EU members in 1993.
5. Euro Dollarprinciple features of the EMU.
6. referendumpopular vote
7. Neo-Nazisprotested against immigration from southern Europe and the Middle East.
8. collective securityjoint agreement by nations to protect themselves from attack.
9. EUEuropean Union; aimed to extend cooperation among European Community members.
10. EMUEconomic and Monetary Union; principal features will be common currency known as the Euro and central bank.
11. The Channel Tunnellinked the island country to mainland Europe after Great Britain and France had be separated for thousands of years by the English Channel.

Section 4 "National and Ethnic Conflicts"


Question Answer
1. Boris YeltsinRussian leader who sent Russian troops into Chechnya.
2. Alexander LebedYeltsin’s aide who was sent by Yeltsin to Chechnya to work out an agreement to end the conflict.
3. Slobodan Milosevicpresident of Serbia.
4. Alija Izetbegovicpresident of Bosnia-Herzegovina
5. Franjo Tudjmanpresident of Croatia
6. Brian Mulroneyprime minister whose Conservative party came to power in 1984; tried in vain to get English-speaking Canada to accept a special status for Quebec.
7. Jean Chretienprime minister who was a firm believer in national unity and opposed Quebec separation.
8. Zahid Olorcicremembers how to multi-ethnic population lived in harmony.


Question Answer
1. Sarajevothe Bosnian capital
2. Daytonwhere the three presidents met in November 1995 and agreed to the partition of Bosnia into distinct Serb and Muslim-Croat areas
3. TajikistanCentral Asia Republic that had peacekeeping forces that were backed by the CIS.
4. Chechnyaterritory of the Chechens located in Southern Russia near the Caspian Sea
5. Armeniaclaimed ownership of Nagorno-Karabakh; made significant advances and took control of much of the disputed territory.
6. Azerbaijanclaimed ownership of Nagorno-Karabakh; Nagorno-Karabakh lies entirely within this enclave.
7. Nagorno-Karabakhenclave claimed by Armenia and Azerbaijan.
8. Sri LankaIndian Ocean Island republic that belonged to the Sinhalese and the Tamils.
9. Quebecpeople of this province wanted independence from English-speaking Canada.
10. OntarioCanada’s most populous province.


Question Answer
1. Ethnic cleansingthe Serbs ruthlessly expelled rival ethnic groups from the areas taken by their army.
2. atrocitiescruel actions
3. embargoa ban on trade
4. Chechensamong the ethnic groups of Russia; declared their independence from Russia in 1994.
5. enclavea small territory entirely surrounded by another territory.
6. Ossetiansminority ethnic group that caused separatist uprisings.
7. Abkhaziansminority ethnic group that caused separatist uprisings; declared their region on independent republic in 1994.
8. KurdsSunni Muslims who live mostly in Armenia, Iran, Iraq, Syria, and Turkey.
9. SinhaleseBuddhists who make up 75 percent of Sri Lanka’s population.
10. TamilsHindus who make up 18 percent of Sri Lanka’s population.
11. Bloc Quebecoisthe Quebec separatist party.

Section 5 “Global Interdependence”


Question Answer
Neil ArmstrongAmerican astronaut that became the first human to step on the moon's surface
Jean-Paul SarteFrench thinker that stated a viewpoint known as existentialism that became popular among intellectuals in the West
Soren KierkegaardDanish writer in the "Golden Age" of intellectual and artistic activity, known as the "father of existentialism"
Albert Camusborn in Algeria,representative of non-metropolitan French literature, won nobel prize
Mother TeresaRoman Catholic nun who inspired many people with her care of the needy in the slums of Calcutta, India
Dalai LamaTibet's Buddhist leader
Desmond TutuSouth African Anglican archbishop who spoke out for human rights
Alfred North WhiteheadBritish mathematician, logician and philosopher, author of Principia Mathematica
Betrand RussellBritish philosopher, logician, essayist, and social critic, known for his defense of logicism and theories of definite descriptions and logical atomism
Ludwig Wittgensteinphilosopher, wrote Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus and Philosophical Investigations
Jaques Derridaphilosopher who developed a strategy called deconstruction
Pablo PicassoSpanish painter who started cubism with his painting of Les Demoiselles d'Avignon
Marcel ProustFrench novelist, wrote Á LA RECHERCHE DU TEMPS PERDU
James JoyceIrish novelist who published Ulysses, a landmark in the development of the modern novel.
Robert Venturipostmodern American architect
Andy WarholContemporary artist from Pittsburgh, created Campbell's Soup Can
Harold PinterNobel prizewinning playwrite, wrote The Room and The Homecoming
Samuel BeckettIrish writer, poet, and dramatist
Eugene IonescoFrench dramatist, wrote LA CANTATRICE CHAUVE
Lucien FebvreFrench historian, cofounded Annales
Mark BlochAmerican conceptual artist, involved with Dada and Surrealism
Robert GibsonAmerican astronaut that maneuvered Atlantis
Dan GoldinNASA chief who worked at the Russian mission control
Yuri KoptevDan Goldin's Russian counterpart
Frank Sietzenwrote The Final Frontier


Question Answer
Montreal, CanadaDelegates from 46 countries met here in 1987 to sign the Montreal Protocol
Rio de Janeiro, BrazilThe Earth Summit of 1992 occured here
New York CityThe Earth Summit+5 took place here in 1997
Annales SchoolSchool of history founded by Lucien Febvre and Mark Bloch, based on "économies, sociétés, et civilisations."


Question Answer
Interdependentreliant on each other
Developing Nationsnewly industrializing countries where many of the people still follow traditional ways of life
Developed Nationshave long been industrialized and have the technology to produce a great quantity and variety of goods
Diversifyincrease the variety of something
Deforestationthe widespread clearing of forests for logging or farming
Montreal Protocolcalled for the reductions in the use of chemicals damaging to the earth’s atmosphere
Earth SummitUN sponsored conference that called on nations to plan economic growth to meet present global needs without sacrificing the environmental needs of future generations.
Earth Summit+5follow-up of the first Earth Summit conference
Space Shuttlespacecraft with wings for controlled descent in the atmosphere, designed to transport astronauts between Earth and an orbiting space station and also used to deploy and retrieve satellites.
Sputnikthe first satellite into orbit in 1957
Interneta massive number of computers linked together through a worldwide, high-speed, telecommunications network
AtlantisAmerican space shuttle docked with Mir
MirRussian space station
Lasersdevices that emit narrow, powerful beams of light
DNA(deoxyribonucleic acid) led to field of genetic engineering
Genetic engineeringprocess that involves the alteration of cells to produce new life-forms
Existentialismviewpoint that became popular among intellectuals in the West, said that each person is essentially alone, but free to choose his or her path in life
Sisyphusphilosophical essay by Albert Camus
Principia Mathematicalandmark work written by Alfred North Whitehead and Bertrand Russell, and published in three volumes, written as a defense of logicism
Deconstructionterm used in contemporary literary criticism, philosophy, and the social sciences, coined by Jacques Derrida
International Monetary Fundset up after World War II to assist global economic development
EUinternational body that was recognized for its growing importance
Microchipthe “brain” driving the computer
Association of Caribbean States formed by countries in the Caribbean, created for same reasons as North American Free Trade Agreement and Southern Common Market
North American Free Trade Agreementimplemented by U.S., Canada, and Mexico, meant to increase trade and to coordinate economic growth among member nations
Southern Common Marketseveral nations in South America participated in this, similar purpose as that of North American Free Trade Agreement and Association of Caribbean States
Treaty of MaastrichtWestern European nations took steps toward political unity by creating the European Union
Association of Southeast Asian Nationssaid to have a powerful impact on the global economy in the future
Universal Declaration of Human Rightsmost important human-rights document of the postwar years, addresses social and economic as well as political rights