Chapter 25 Quiz ??

vezatola's version from 2016-04-19 00:33

Section 1

Question Answer
All the chemical reactions that occur in an organism are calledMetabolism
The flow and transformation of energy is calledEnergetics
Which process in the aerobic metabolism of glucose takes place in they cytosolGlycolysis
The series of integral and peripheral proteins in the inner mitochondria that takes NADH, FADH2, and oxygen and produces ATP and water is the Electron transport system
The synthesis of glucose from noncarboydrates isGlucogenesis
The process in which fatty acids are broken down into two carbon fragments isBeta-oxidation
They synthesis of lipids is calledLipogenesis
The lipoprotein that transports cholesterol to the liver isHigh-density lipoprotein
The removal of the amine group from an amino acid resulting in the formation of an ammonium ion isDeamination
The attachment of an amine group is the synthesis of an amino acid is calledAmination

Section 2

Question Answer
What is the term for an amino acid that either CANNOT be synthesized or IS NOT synthesized in adequate amounts in the bodyEssential amino acid
The period following a meal, when nutrient absorption is underway, isThe absorptive state
Levels of which endocrine hormone are high during the postabsorptive stateGlucagon
Which of the following tissues contains NO reserves of carbohydrates, lipids, or proteins and can metabolize only glucoseNeural tissue
Which of the following is NOT one of the N compounds (nitrogen-containing compounds) in the bodyGlucose
Which of the following is NOT a mineral required by the bodyThiamine
Which vitamin is required for the synthesis of visual pigamentsVitamin A
What is the term for the direct of heat energy through physical contactConduction
Which of the following enables infants to produce or conserve heatLipolysis of brown fat
The minimum resting energy expenditure of an awake, alert person is the Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR)
Why is it that lipids CANNOT provide large amounts of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in a short period of timeLipids are insoluble & it's difficult for water-soluble enzymes to reach them
The factors that make protein catabolism an IMPRACTICAL source of quick energy include which of the followingProteins are important to structural & functional cellular production, one of the by-products, ammonia, is a toxin that can damage cells, proteins are more difficult to break apart
A diet in essential fatty acids wouldAlter the appearance of skin

Section 3

Question Answer
Metabolism refers to All the chemical reactions in the body
Neurons must be provided with a reliable supply of glucose because they areUsually unable to metabolize other molecules
In resting skeletal muscles, a significant portion of the metabolic demand is met throughCatabolism of fatty acids
The process that breaks down organic substrates, releasing energy that can be used to synthesize ATP or other high-energy compounds, isCatabolism
In terms of the movement of electrons, the gain of electrons is called reduction, whereas the loss is calledOxidation
In glycolysis, six-carbon glucose molecules are broken down into two three- carbon molecules ofPyruvic acid
The first step in a sequence of enzymatic reactions in the tricarboxylic acid cycle is the formation ofCitric acid
For each glucose molecule converted to 2 pyruvates, the anaerobic reaction sequence in glycolysis provides a net gain of2 ATP for the cell
For each glucose molecule processed during aerobic cellular respiration, the cell gains36 molecules of ATP
Why is it that lipids CANNOT provide large amounts of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in a short period of timeMost lipids are processed in mitochondria & mitochondrial activity is limited by oxygen availability
The factors that make protein catabolism an IMPRACTICAL source of quick energy include which of the followingOne of the by products amonia, is toxin can cause damage to cells
A diet in essential fatty acids wouldCause decrease in production of protaglandins

Section 4

Question Answer
Why is it that lipids CANNOT provide large amounts of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in a short period of timeLipids are difficult to mobilize
Although small quantities of lipids are normally stored in the liver, most of the synthesized triglycerides are bound toTransport proteins
The factors that make protein catabolism an IMPRACTICAL source of quick energy include which of the followingProteins are difficult to break apart
A diet in essential fatty acids wouldSlow growth
Coenzymes that deliver hydrogen ions and electrons to the ETS in the inner mitochondrial membraneNADH & FADH2
If excess glucose still remains in the circulation after glycogen formation, the hepatocytes use glucose toSynthesize triglycerides
When blood glucose concentrations are elevated, the glucose molecules areCatabolized for energy
Before the large vitamin B12 molecule can be absorbed, it must be bound to Intrinsic factor
What foods are DEFICIENT in dietary fiberMilk & meat
A fat-soluble vitamin necessary for synthesis of visual pigmentsVitamin A
Why are minerals, vitamins, and water classified as essential nutrientsThe body cannot synthesize the nutrients in sufficient quantities
The trace minerals found in extremely small quantities in the body includeIron, zinc, copper, and manganese

Section 5

Question Answer
Why is hypervitaminosis involving water-soluble vitamins relatively UNCOMMONExcessive amounts are readily excreted in the urine
To examine the metabolic state of an individual, results may be expressed asCalories per day, per hour, per unit of body weight per day
An individual's basal metabolic rate ideally representsThe minimum resting energy expenditure of an awake, alert person
NAD, a key coenzyme used in the process of producing ATP, is produced from which water-soluble vitaminNiacin
The four processes involved in heat exchange with the environment areRadiation, conduction, convection, & evaporation
Phoebe grew up in Alaska's interior and used to play with her friends at recess in temps of -20f. Her school doesn't cancle until the temps reach -50f. WhyAcclimatization
Lucy, a 35-yrs-old, says she CANNOT lose the fat around her abdomen because it is brown fat. You correct her by saying that the only people with brown fat areInfants
A cell with excess carbohydrates, lipids, and amino acids will break down carbohydrates to Obtain energy
Why is it that fatty acids and many amino acids CANNOT be converted to glucose?Their catabolic pathways produce acetyl-CoA
Why can lipogenesis use almost any organic substrateLipids, amino acids, & carbohydrates can be converted to acetyl-CoA
During open-heart surgery, what thermoregulatory changes will be induced on the patients bodyHypothermia
The basal metabolic rate (BMR) is*Measured by monitoring respiratory activity *minimum resting energy of an awake person *70cal/hr or 1680cal/day in average individuals

Section 6

Question Answer
The efficiency rate for the complete catabolism of glucose is about42%
What hormones exhibits its influence most during the postabsorptive stateGlucagon
Lipids circulate through the bloodstream asLipoproteins and free fatty acids
What is the primary function of very low-density lipoprteins(VLDLs)Transporting the triglycerides to peripheral tissues
LDLs are absorbed by cells through the process ofReceptor-mediated endocytosis
In the beta-oxidation of an 18-carbon fatty acid molecule, the cell gains144 ATP
Excess cholesterol leaves somatic cells and is absorbed by____ which then transport the cholesterol back to the liverHDLs
Under normal circumstances, if you eat three meals a day, the body will spend about 12 hours in the Absorptive state
The most important factors in good nutrition are to obtain nutrientsIn sufficient quantity and quality
What is an important energy source during periods of starvation, when glucose supplies are limitedFree fatty acids
What are the ONLY essential amino acids for growing childrenLeucine, lysine, valine, tryptophan, arginine
Milk and eggs are complete proteins because they containall the essential amino acids in sufficient quantities
What is a nitrogen compound important in energy storage in muscle tissueCreatine
They synthesis of glucose from nonglucose precursors in known asGluconeogenesis