Chapter 22 respiratory system

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Section 1

Question Answer
1. The _______ zone includes the alveoli, and the _______ zone includes the trachea. a. conducting; respiratory b. transport; ventilation c. respiratory; conducting d. ventilation; transportC
2. Which of the following is listed in the correct order, from superior to inferior? a. Nasopharynx, oropharynx, laryngopharynx b. Oropharynx, nasopharynx, laryngopharynx c. Laryngopharynx, oropharynx, nasopharynxA
3. Air passing from the pharynx to the trachea must pass through the _______. a. nasal cavity b. bronchi c. larynx d. diaphragmC
4. Which is not a function of the paranasal sinuses? a. Warming of inhaled air b. Gas exchange c. Humidify inhaled air d. Contribute to sound resonanceB
5. Which of the following does NOT describe mucociliary transport? a. Mucus traps pathogens b. Cilia move mucus-trapped toward pharynx allowing it to be swallowed c. Mucous-trapped bacteria are disposed of through the Eustachian tube d. Mucus contains lysozymeC
6. This structure prevents food from entering the airway. a. Vestibular fold b. Uvula c. Laryngopharynx d. EpiglottisD
7. The "Adam's apple" is located on which cartilage? a. Cricoid cartilage b. Thyroid cartilage c. Arytenoid cartilage d. Corniculate cartilageB
8. Tissues of the upper respiratory tract in contact with inhaled air likely contain: a. Microvilli b. Cilia and goblet cells c. Simple squamous epithelium d. Stratified squamous epitheliumB
9. The median ridge at point where trachea forks into right and left primary bronchi is called the: a. Larynx b. Epiglottis c. Adventitia d. CarinaD
10. How is it possible to remove a section of lung without damaging neighboring sections? a. The bronchopulmonary segments are separated from each other by connective tissue septa. b. Surgeons cauterize any freshly cut portion of the lung to seal it. c. Lungs are actually comprised of multiple separate structures, each served by its own bronchus. d. It isn't possible to perform this type of surgery on the lungs.A
11. Which structure is the last, smallest portion of the conducting portion of the respiratory system? a. Nasopharynx b. Terminal bronchiole c. Respiratory bronchiole d. Alveolus B
12. The epithelium lining the alveolus is composed of a. Simple squamous epithelium b. Stratified squamous epithelium c. Simple cuboidal epithelium d. Transitional epitheliumA

Section 2

Question Answer
13. An increase in the volume of a container filled with air would have what effect on the pressure of the container? a. Increase the pressure b. Decrease the pressure c. No effectC
14. The pressure in the alveoli is known as __________. a. intrapulmonary pressure b. intrapleural pressure c. transpulmonary pressure d. atmospheric pressureA
15. All of the following statements are true of inspiration except _______. a. the rib cage is elevated b. the diaphragm is relaxed c. volume in the thoracic cavity has increased d. intrapulmonary pressure has decreasedB
16. What happens to volume of the thoracic cavity when the inspiratory muscles contract? What happens to the intrapulmonary pressure?INCREASED; DECREASED
17. When the pleural cavity is damaged and the intrapleural pressure becomes equal to or exceeds the atmospheric pressure: a. A pneumothorax b. Inspiration c. Apnea d. HyperpneaA
18. True or false: normal expiration is a passive process, involving muscle relaxation.TRUE
19. During an asthma attack, bronchioles become severely _______. Taking epinephrine causes them to _______. a. constricted; dilate b. dilated; constrict c. mucus-filled; empty of mucus d. both a and cA
20. Infant respiratory distress syndrome occurs because premature infants lack the ability to produce _______, which _______. a. mucus; traps bacteria b. cilia; clear mucus from the trachea c. surfactant; lowers surface tension d. alveoli; causes them to become hypoxicC
21. Which of the following best describes the result of the deficiency identified in the previous question? a. Alveoli collapse b. Alveoli expand too much c. Lungs lack the ability to recoil d. The large airways are not properly lubricatedA
22. Which of the following descriptions of surfactant is incorrect? a. Reduces surface tension of alveolar fluid b. Discourages alveolar collapse c. Detergent-like lipid and protein complex produced by serous membrane d. Increases alveolar complianceC
23. Tidal volume is the amount of air ___________. a. inhaled or exhaled with each breath under resting conditions b. remaining in the lungs after a forced expiration c. exhaled with each breath under resting conditions d. that can be expired after a maximum inspiratory effortA

Section 3

Question Answer
24. Two gases contribute to the majority of total atmospheric pressure. They are ______. a. CO2 and O2 b. N2 and O2 c. CO2 and H2O vapor d. N2 and CO2B
25. How is most oxygen carried in the blood?Bound to hemoglobin
26. Hemoglobin molecules are fully saturated when bound to ______ molecule(s) of O2. a. one b. two c. three d. fourD
27. Which mechanism allows exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the lungs and through cell membranes?Diffusion
28. The rate of oxygen diffusion across the respiratory membrane depends upon all of the following except ______. a. the thickness of the respiratory membrane b. partial pressure of oxygen in the alveoli c. partial pressure of oxygen in the blood d. partial pressure of carbon dioxide in the bloodD
29. Low PO2 and high PCO2 in the alveoli will cause ________. a. constriction of pulmonary capillaries and bronchioles b. dilation of pulmonary capillaries and bronchioles c. constriction of pulmonary capillaries and dilation of bronchioles d. dilation of pulmonary capillaries and constriction of bronchiolesC
30. Where alveolar CO2 is high, bronchioles ______, CO2 is low, bronchioles ________. a. Dilate; constrict b. Dilate; stay the same diameter c. Constrict; dilate d. Constrict; stay the same diameterA
31. What is the purpose of the “chloride shift” in red blood cells? a. To provide chlorine to the enzyme carbonic anhydrase b. To counterbalance the exodus of bicarbonate ions from red blood cells c. To counterbalance the exodus of H+ from red blood cells d. To convert chloride ions to bicarbonate ionsB
32. Which of the following has the highest affinity for O2? a. Hb with no O2 bound b. Hb with one O2 bound c. Hb with two O2 bound d. Hb with three O2 boundD
33. Of the following, ______ has the highest affinity for hemoglobin. a. O2 b. CO2 c. CO d. H+C
34. Which of the following will make hemoglobin's affinity for oxygen increase? a. A decrease in pH b. An decrease in PCO2 c. An increase in temperatureB
35. In the blood, most carbon dioxide is transported _______. a. bound to hemoglobin b. dissolved in the plasma c. as bicarbonate ions d. as carbonic acidC
36. Increases in temperature, H+, CO2, or BPG will cause the affinity of Hb for O2 to _______. a. Increase b. Stay the same c. DecreaseC
37. What causes hypoxia? a. Inadequate O2 delivery to tissues b. Carbon monoxide poisoning c. Impaired ventilation d. All of the aboveD

Section 4

Question Answer
38. Loss of lung elasticity and destruction of alveolar walls is termed _______. a. asthma b. emphysema c. chronic bronchitis d. dyspneaB
39. A decrease in pH will have what effect on the respiration rate? a. Decrease b. Increase c. No effect d. No effect unless lung damage is presentB
40. Hyperventilation can be treated by: a. Exhaling forcefully b. Increasing breathing rate c. Inhaling air rich in O2 d. Inhaling air rich in CO2D
41. ________ is the most potent chemical influencing respiration. a. O2 b. N c. H2O d. CO2D
42. True or false: You can voluntarily suffocate yourself by holding your breath.FALSE
43. Increased blood CO2 level is called: a. Hypercapnia b. Hypocapnia c. Hypercalcemia d. HypocalcemiaA
44. A history of _______ is seen in the majority of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease a. Swimming b. Vegan diet c. Drinking d. SmokingD
45. Hypoventilation is associated with respiratory _________. a. Alkalosis b. AcidosisB

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