Chapter 20

kyrac1997's version from 2017-04-21 01:54

Section 1

Question Answer
SensationConscious or subconscious awareness of changes in the extrernal or internal enviroment
StimulusChange on the enviroment
Sensory ReceptorTransduction of stimulus into nerve impluse
Nerve impluses are conducted along a _____ to the brainpathway
A region of the brain must ____ the impulses into a sensationintegrate

Section 2

Question Answer
General Sense: Somatictouch, pain, proprioception
General Sense: VisceralProvide information about conditions in the internal organs: pressure, stretch, hunger
Special SensesSmell, taste, vision, hearing, equilibrium
Thermal sensation and painBoth utilize free nerve endings
ThemoreceptorsTemperature detect temps between 10c and 48c
Referred painPain felt in an area of the body but stimulus is elsewhere

Section 3

Question Answer
First order neuronpathway from somatic receptors to the brainstem and spinal cord. cranial nerves and spinal nerves involved
Second order neuronpathway from brain/ spinal cord to the thalamus. decussate in brainstem and spinal cord
Third order neuronPathway from thalamus to the primary somatosensory area of cortex. Thalamus and cortect involved
Posterior column-medial lemniscus pathwaytouch, pressure,vibration, and conscious proprioception
Anterolateral (spinothalamic) pathwaypain. temperature, itch and tickle from limbs trunk and posterior head
Anterior and posterior spinocerebellar pathwayposture, balance and coordination of skilled movements
Lateral corticospinal pathwayproduce precise, agile, highly skilled movements of the hands and feet
Anterior corticospinal pathway skeletal muscle of the trunk and proximal parts of the limbs
Corticobulbar pathwaycontrols precise voluntary movements of the eyes tongue and neck. speech facial expression and swallowing
Rubrospinal pathwaycontrols contralateral skeletal muscles that govern precise voluntary movements of the distal parts of the upper limbs
Tectospinal pathwaycontrols contralateral skeletal muscles that reflexively move the head eyes and trunk
Vestibulospinal pathwaymaintains posture and balance in response to head movements
Medial and lateral reticulospinal pathwaysmaintain posture and muscle tone in response to ongoing muscle movements

Section 4

Question Answer
Gracile fasciculus receives nerve impluses fromupper limb and trunk
Cunate fasciculus receives nerve impluses form lower limb and trunk
Define lower motor neuronall signals that control movement converge on motor neurons that leave brain and spinal cord
Define upper motor neuronin brain
Define direct motor pathwayinput to lower motor neurons directly from cerebral cortex
Define indirect motor pathwayinput to lower motor neurons form basal nuclei, cerebellum and cerebral cortex

Section 5

Question Answer
Lateral corticospinal tract pathwaybrain to lateral white column to hands and feet muscles
Lateral corticospinal tract pathway decussate inmedulla
Anterior corticospinal tract pathwaybrain to anterior white column to proximal limb/trunk
Anterior corticospinal tract pathway decussate inanterior white commissure
Corticobulbar pathwaybrain CN 9 to 12 to cranial nerves 3 to 7 to eyes facial mucles tongue and neck

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