(Chapter 2)Group Properties of Elements

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Section 1

Question Answer
Transition elementsElements in which a d orbital is filled partially, starting at Group III-B and ending at Group II-B.
Lanthanides and actinides(Inner transition elements)14 member families in which f orbitals have 1 to 14 electrons.
Heavy metalsFound in the two bottom rows.
Metallic elementsProtein precipitants, major exception being the alkali metals. Therefore, they are toxic (e.g. Ba, Tl, Pb and Hg).
AmphotericElements are equally acidic and basic.
Diagonals or bridge elementsThe 1st member of the family can be quite unlike the other members; it more closely resembles the 2nd member of the adjacent group to the right.
Orbital electronsPredict the possible oxidation states, the shielding of nuclear charge, and the polarizability for each element.
Atomic radius and ionic radiiGive an indication of the relative size of the members of a family.
Ionization PotentialA measure of the energy required to remove an electron by overcoming the attractive force of the nucleus.
ElectronegativityAttraction of nucleus for electrons

Section 2

Question Answer
Alkali Metals Most reactive of all the metallic elements
Lithium (Li)Lightest metal
Lithium (Li)Depresses the CNS
Lithium Carbonate USP and Lithium Citrate USPUsed in the treatment of hypomanic and manic states.
Lithium (Li) Bridge ElementResembles of Mg>Ca>Na
Potassium saltsmore soluble in nonpolar solvents are less deliquescent than Na salts.
Sodium saltsselected more frequently for use on a strictly economic basis.
Sodium (Na) The most abundant extracellular cation
Potassium (K)The most abundant intracellular cation
Sodium (Na) Common cation of choice to optimize the pharmaceutical utility of the organic medicaments
NaClelectrolyte replenishers
Na+promotes retention of fluid in the tissues
Potassium (K)Has diuretic effect
Cesium (Cs)Very similar in behaviour to potassium
Cesium (Cs)Catalyst in the polymerization of resins
CsClused in density gradient centrifugation
Ammonia and Ammonium CompoundsHypothetical alkali metal and its salts resemble K and Rb salts (isoamorphous)
16 (degrees Baumé)in household amoniacontains 10% NH3
NH4Brcentral depressant

Section 3

Question Answer
Group VIIIB: Triads (1/2/3)– 1st: Iron (Fe), Cobalt (Co) and Nickel (Ni) – 2nd: Ruthenium (Ru), Rhodium (Rh) and Palladium (Pd) – 3rd: Osmium (Os), Iridium (Ir) and Platinum (Pt)
Triad 1-Iron TriadsIron (Fe), Cobalt (Co) and Nickel (Ni)
Triad 2-light Pt metalsRuthenium (Ru), Rhodium (Rh) and Palladium (Pd)
Triad 3-heavy Pt metalsOsmium (Os), Iridium (Ir) and Platinum (Pt)

Section 4

Question Answer
Copper (Cu)3rd most malleable metal
Copper (Cu)2nd best conductor of electricity
Copper (Cu)Occurs in the respiratory pigment hemocyanin, in many enzymes, and is distributed widely in foods
Copper (Cu)Only reddish colored metal
Bourdeaux mixture (CuSO4 + CaO)Fungicide and algaecide
Copper acetoarsenateInsecticide
CuSO4.5H2OEmetics;Basis for Fehling’s and Benedict’s Solutions
CuSO4.5H2OBlue vitriol, blue stone
CuSO4.5H2OComponent of bourdeaux mixture;Antidote for phosphorus poisoning
Silver (Ag)2nd most malleable metal
Silver (Ag)1st best conductor of electricity
Silver (Ag)Has oligodynamic action and can provide germicidal actions that can precipitate protein and chloride in the affected tissue
Silver (Ag)Poisoning: Argyria
Silver Nitrate (AgNO3)Use in the Removal of warts;Eyewash for newborn babies of mothers with gonorrhea;Indelible ink
Silver Nitrate (AgNO3)Lapis infernalis, lunar caustic, caustic pencil
Silver sulfadiazineTreatment of burns (germicidal action)
Mild silver protein (Argyrol)19 – 23/25% Ag, antiseptic for the eyes
Strong silver protein (Protargol)7.5 – 8.5% Ag, antiseptic for ears, nose, and throat
Colloidal silver protein (Colargol)18-22% Ag, general germicide
Gold (Au)Most malleable metal; King of all metals
Gold (Au)3rd best conductor of electricity
Aqua regia (royal water) – 3 HCl:1 HNO3 and Selenic AcidWhat can dissolve gold?
Gold (Au)Compounds are employed for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and arthritis
Auranofin (PO)For rheumatoid Arthritis
The radioactive isotope 198AuTreatment of certain malignancies

Section 5

Question Answer
Group IIA: The Alkaline Earth MetalsCharacterized by the presence of two electrons in the outermost orbital (bivalent);Function uniformly in the +2 oxidation state
Beryllium (Be)Amphoteric
Resembles aluminum in its behaviourBridge element (Be)
Berylliummost toxic metal
Magnesium (Mg)2nd most plentiful cation inside the cell
Magnesium (Mg)Natural calcium channel blocker
Calcium gluconate (IV)Antidote for toxicity of Mg
Magnesium (Mg)Lightest of all structurally important metals
Mg(OH)2 and MgSO4used as cathartics (Mg)
MgSO4 anticonvulsant (Mg)
Magnesium stearateemployed as a lubricant in the preparation of compressed tablets. (Mg)
artificialradioactiveisotope27Mgemployed in research involving photosynthesis.(Mg)
Calcium (Ca)2nd most abundant extracellular cation
Calcium (Ca)Cation of hydroxyapatite, the major constituent (98%) of the bones and teeth
Calcium (Ca)Antacids, and calcium replenishers
45Ca isotopeemployed in studies involving mineral metabolism.
Strontium (Sr)Very similar in behavior to Ca
Barium (Ba)Chemically the most active of Group IIA
Ba(OH)2 limeCarbon dioxide absorbent (Ba)
BaSO4used as radiopaque agent in X-ray imaging and other diagnostic procedures
BaritosisToxicity of Barium (Ba)
Epsom salt (MgSO4)Antidote for barium toxicity

Section 6

Question Answer
Zinc (Zn)Does not occur free in nature;Metal present in insulin
Zinc Blende(ZnS)
Willemite [[Zn2SiO4]
Zinc (Zn)Essential component of carbonic anhydrase and many other enzymes.
(baking soda)Sodium bicarbonate
Sodium bicarbonate (baking soda)Antidote for toxicity (Zn)
Cadmium (Cd)Intermediate in properties to zinc and mercury
CdSO4used both as a topical astringent and for eye infections. (Cd)
Cadmium SulfideTreatment of seborrheic dermatitis(Cd)
Itai-itai diseaseCadmium (Cd) toxicity
Mercury (Hg)Quicksilver; true metal
Mercury (Hg)It is only in the family which has two series of salts.
Sodium Formaldehyde Sulfoxylate NF;Egg albumenAntidote for Mercury Poisoning

Section 7

Question Answer
alumsMembers of this family give rise to an interesting series of double salts
M+2M3+2(SO4)4.24H2OCommon formula of alum
K2Al2(SO4)4.24H2Oprototype (alum)
certain properties resemble those of siliconBoron (B) Bridge element
Metalloid borderline element possessing both metallic and nonmetallic character
Boron (B)Boiled lobster appearance (red-orange skin)
boraxBoric acid and Sodium borate;feebly bacteriostatic
Boric acidtopical anti-infective; in a solution, it is used as an eye wash. (B)
Sodium borateingredient of cold creams, eye washes, and mouthwashes. (B)
Sodium perborates an oxidizing type of local anti-infective. (B)
Aluminum (Al)Most abundant of the metals (in earth’s crust)
Shaver’s Disease (Bauxite pneumoconiosis )Aluminum Toxicity
Aluminum (Al)Astringent and antiseptic – used for various skin conditions and in antiperspirants and deodorants
GalliumAppears to be useful in treating cancer-related hypercalcemia
IndiumQuite similar to both aluminum and gallium.
Thalliummost toxic in (IIA):used in insecticides, especially and poisons
CeriumExhibits valence states of 3 (cerous) and 4 (ceric)
Cerium (IV)widely used analytical reagent(Group IIIB)

Section 8

Question Answer
Carbon (C)Basic building unit of organic compounds
Carbon (C)Can form multiple bonds with itself – catenation organic compounds (chain formation)
Carbon Form: Crystallinediamond, graphite
Carbon Form: Amorphous charcoal, anthracite
Silicon (Si)2nd most abundant element on earth
silicon dioxideSilica
Silicon (Si)Forms an inert oxide, silicon dioxide (Silica)
Siliceous Earths(diatomaceous earth, Fuller’s earth, Kieselguhr, Celite) and infusorial earth
Siliceous Earths Used as mild abrasives
SilicosisLung condition resembling chronic TB, which develops after long exposure (7 years or more) to respirable dust (silica particles 5 μm or less in mean diameter)
AsbestosisPulmonary condition similar to silicosis
Attapulgite (Mg5(Si8O20)(OH)2.8H2O) Aluminum with adsorptive properties
Kaolinite clarifying agent(Si)
Talc (Mg3(OH)2Si4O10) Softest mineral – Used in dusting powders as protective and lubricant, and filter aid
Talc (Mg3(OH)2Si4O10) Used in dusting powders as protective and lubricant, and filter aid
BentoniteSuspending agent(Si)
Feldspars (KAlSi3O8)The most common rock (Si)
PumicePorous rock of volcanic origin, used as dental abrasive (Si)
Glass (Si) generic term used to identify vitreous silicate minerals prepared by fusing a base, such as Na2CO3 & CaCO3, with pure silica – MnO2 – masks the blue-green color of the iron usually present in silica – Borates – reduce coefficient of expansion – K+ – gives brown and light resistant glass
Tin (Sn)Both hydroxides are amphoteric
Stannous FluorideTopically as dental prophylactic (Sn)
Tin dioxide preparationsGermicidal effect, particularly against staphylococcal organisms that are often resistant to other germicides (Sn)
Lead (Pb)Most metallic element of group IVA

Section 9

Question Answer
TiO2 used as a solar-ray protective; as such, popular ingredient in various lotions and creams for prevention of sunburn (Ti)
Zirconium (Zr) (as the hydrous oxide or carbonate)has been used as a lotion or cream for contact dermatitis.
zirconium compoundsUsed as antiperspirants (Zr)

Section 10

Question Answer
Nitrogen (N)Occurs free in the atmosphere (78%)
Nitrogen (N)Prepared by fractional distillation of liquid air.
NitrogenNFEmployed pharmaceutically as an inert atmosphere in ampules and other containers or substances that would be affected adversely by air.
Nitrogen(I) Oxide USPnitrous oxide ; Inhalatory general anesthetic
Sodium Nitrite USPAntidote for cyanide poisoning,vasodilator (N)
Nitric Oxide (NO) An important neurotransmitter causing vasodilation – lowers BP
Nitrite ionReacts with hemoglobin to form methemoglobin.
Nitrite ionform N-nitroso derivatives of amines and amides which may be carcinogenic
Cupric SulfateAntidote for phosphorus poisoning
Arsenic (As)Lewisite metal
Salvarsan, Arsphenamine1st anti-syphilis (As)
Arsenic Trioxideused to prepare insecticides such as:
Promyelocystic leukemiaAntileukemic agent (1mg/mL injection)(As)
tartar emeticAntimony Potassium Tartrate
Antimony Sodium Tartrate USPtreatment of schistosomiasis (flukes)
– Bismuth Subnitrate – Bismuth Subgallate – Milk of Bismuth: antacids (-OH and CO32- ions)Official Bismuth Compounds
Colloidal bismuth subcitrateClinically used in the treatment of peptic ulcer disease.
TantalumUnaffected by the body fluids, it is used in sheet form for the surgical repair of bones.

Section 11

Question Answer
XO2 and XO3General formula for oxides
Oxygen (O)Most abundant element
Oxygen (O)2nd most electronegative element
Oxygen USPtherapeutic gas in the treatment of condition involving hypoxia
Ozonized airAir treated to convert some of its oxygen into ozone – Used in various disinfecting and bleaching operations.
Hydrogen Peroxide (H2O2) and peroxidesSeries of oxygen compound in which O has -1 oxidation state.
Hydrogen Peroxide Concentrate USP: 30 % solution Powerful OA, hence, not applied topically (O)
Hydrogen Peroxide Topical Solution USP: 3 % solution (10 volumes)Mild, fast acting, oxidizing germicide (O)
Hydrogen Peroxide, 6 % solution (20 volumes)Common bleach mild enough for use on hair (O)
Sulfur (S)Exists in different allotropic forms
Selenium and tellurium compoundsanalogous to sulfur.
Selenium Sulfide (and Lotion) USPemployed as a 2.5% suspension in the topical treatment of seborrheic dermatitis
Chromium (Cr) Glucose tolerance factor
51Cremployed as biological tracer in certain hematological procedures.
Molybdenum (Mo)Cofactor of flavin dependent enzymes;Distinctly acidic (& Tungsten)
UraniumUsed in the manufacture of atomic bomb

Section 12

Question Answer
Fluorine (F)The best oxidizing agent
Fluorine (F)Most electronegative element
Chlorine (Cl)Very reactive nonmetallic element
Chloride ion frequently the carrier of choice for other metal cations
Chlorine (Cl)Pharmaceutical necessity (neutralizing, stabilizing or solubilizing other substances)
Ammonium ChlorideExpectorant and systemic acidifying agent
Sodium Hypochlorite Solution USPEffective germicide, viricide, and deodorant(Cl)
Bromine (Br)Dark reddish brown, fuming liquid with a suffocating odor.
Bromine (Br)Powerful caustic and germicide but is not employed as such.
Bromidehas central depressant action (Br)
Iodine (I)Effective antimicrobial;Low iodine vapor pressure
Astatine (At)Synthetic radioactive element

Section 13

Question Answer
Manganese (Mn)Essential trace element – Enzymes: pyruvate carboxylase
Potassium Permanganate USPLocal anti-infective (OA);Astringent and powerful deodorant and cleanser – Antidote for various alkaloids and other toxic
Technetium (Tc)First element produced artificially
99TcUsed diagnostically in various forms
RheniumEmployed as a catalyst for dehydrogenation
Ar, Ne, Kr, He and Xeproduced from liquid air by fractional distillation.
Rarecovered from the natural decay products of radium.
Helium (He)2nd lightest gas
Helium (He)Used to prepare synthetic airs/artificial airs;Inhalation of pure helium produced a Donald duck or Chipmunk-like sound
Neon (Ne)Used for advertising purposes
Argon (Ar)Most abundant noble gas
Argon (Ar)Substitute for nitrogen as an inert atmosphere for industrial processes • By-product of the fractionalization of liquid air for the production of O2 and N2
Krypton (Kr)Least abundant noble gas; use as anesthetics
133Xeused for diagnostic studies both by inhalation and intravenous injection.
Radon (Rd)Used in treatment of certain types of cancer
Radon (Rd)Synthetic and radioactive noble gas

Section 14

Question Answer
Iron (Fe)Essential trace element – transportation of oxygen by hemoglobin
green hydrated form of iron(+2)
Whiteanhydrous form of iron(+2)
brown hydrated form of iron(+3)
varies in coloranhydrous form of iron(+3)
CoCl2 dehydrating agent (Co)
Redhydrated form of Cobalt
Blueanhydrous form of Cobalt
Cobalt (Co)Used in the manufacture of beer
Nickel (Ni)Metal in fancy jewelries (+2)
Osmium (Os)Heaviest and densest metal
Platinum (Pt)Catalyst/Cisplatin
CispatinCancer chemotherapy
Palladium (Pd)Catalyst