Chapter 2 & 3

ohsobeezee23's version from 2015-12-01 22:05

Chapter 3 & 4

Question Answer
Define unconditioned reflex. Give two examples of an unconditioned reflex.Unconditioned reflex is a stimulus-response sequence in which a stimulus elicits a response without prior learning or conditioning
Food (stimulus) elicits salivation (response)
Inhaling pepper elicits sneezing
Define conditioned reflex, and describe the example of a conditioned reflex illustrated in the case of Susan, the figure skater at the beginning of Chapter 3• A conditioned reflex is a response to the once unconditioned response. A stimuli that did not originally elicit a response, but has come to do so through appropriate pairings with a stimulus that did elicit that response.
• In the example in chapter 3, the conditioned reflex was Susan having emotions of fear every time she approached a take off position for a double axel.
What are two other names for respondent conditioningClassical or Pavlovian conditioning
State the procedure and result of respondent conditioningProcedure: a neutral stimulus (NS) is closely followed by an unconditioned stimulus (US) which elicits an unconditioned response (UR)

Result: NS becomes conditioned stimulus (CS) that tends to elicit conditioned response (CR) that was the previously UR

Examples: 1. Back flip on balance beam (NS) > bad fall (US) > fear (UR) 2.Back flip on balance beam (CS) > fear (CR)
Describe the details of how Susan, the figure skater, was helped to overcome her fear of attempting the double axle jump in Chapter 3. (If you prefer, you can simply diagram this example of counter conditioning)Susan the figure skater was able to overcome her fear of attempting the double axle jump by practicing deep breathing and telling herself to r-e-l-a-x. She then approached her takeoff position, took a deep breath, and told herself to r-e-l-a-x on the exhale, but did not attempt the jump five times in a row. This established the takeoff position as a CS for the CR of feeling relaxed. Feeling relaxed is incompatible with feeling fear so the takeoff position lost its ability to elicit the CR of fear. This process is known as counter-conditioning.
In respondent what does each of the following stand for: NS, US, UR, CS, and CR?NS - neutral stimulus
US - unconditioned stimulus
UR - unconditioned response
CS - conditioned stimulus
CR - conditioned response
In a sentence each briefly state five variables that influence the development of a conditioned reflex1. The greater the number of pairings of a CS with a US, the greater the ability of the ability of the CS to elicit the CR, until the maximum strength of the conditioned reflex has been reached
2. Stronger conditioning occurs if the CS precedes the US by just a second, rather than by a longer time, or rather than by following the US
3. A CS acquires greater ability to elicit CR if the CS is always paired with a given US, than if its only occasionally paired with the US
4. When several NS precede a US, the stimulus that is most consistently associated with the US is the one most likely to become string CS
5. Respondent conditioning will develop more quickly and strongly when the CS or US or both are intense, rather than weak
Describe the procedure and result of positive reinforcement.Procedure: Presentation of a reinforcer immediately after a behavior
Result: The behavior is strengthened or more likely to occur in similar situations
Define conditioned reinforcer. Describe two sport examples of conditioned reinforcers that are not in this chapter• A conditioned reinforcer is a stimuli that acquire reinforcing value; also called secondary or learned reinforcers
Examples include Seeing the ball get into the net when attempting a 3-point shot & Hearing a praise from your coach after each practice
Distinguish between a natural reinforcer and a deliberately-programmed reinforcer. Illustrate each with a sport example that is not in this chapter• Natural reinforcers – reinforcers that immediately follow behavior in the normal course of everyday living // example: your opponent gets a point if you fail to hit the tennis ball with your racquet
• Deliberately-programmed reinforcers – reinforcers that are manipulated to change a behavior // example: your coach says "I will extend the length of our practice if you continue coming in late"
What are two differences between the effects of continuous versus intermittent reinforcement1. Individuals are likely to work much more consistently on certain intermittent schedules of reinforcement than on continuous schedules of reinforcement
2.A behavior that has been reinforced intermittently is likely to take much longer to extinguish than a behavior that has been reinforced continuously Note: Continuous (every occurrence of a response is reinforced); Intermittent (responses are reinforced only occasionally)
Define fixed-ratio schedule of reinforcement, and give a sport example that is not in this chapter• A fixed-ratio schedule of reinforcement is an intermittent reinforcement where the reinforcement occurs after a fixed number of certain responses are emitted Example: Getting free times to monkey bars, spider web, or dodge ball after completing three successful gymnastic routines
Define variable interval schedule with a limited hold and give a sport example that is not in this chapter• Variable-interval schedule with a limited hold is a schedule that requires only one response (rather than a certain number), but that response must occur at an unpredictable period of time Example: if basketball players are productive before a buzzer goes off, they get an extra 5 minutes of scrimmage
Define avoidance conditioning and give a sport example that is not in this chapter Similar to escape conditioning, avoidance conditioning is learning behaviors that prevent unpleasant events from occurring at all. For example, bringing proper shoes or protective gear to practice to avoid injuries
List three differences between operant behavior and respondent behavior (any three of the differences listed in Table 3-2)Operant is controlled by consequences while respondent are automatic responses to prior stimuli Operant usually involves skeletal muscles while respondent involves smooth muscles and glands that control our gastrointestinal tract and blood vessels Operant is said to be emitted by an individual while respondent is said to be elicited by prior stimuli
Describe the procedure and result of both operant and respondent extinction.Operant Extinction
Procedure: in the present of a stimulus, a response is not followed by a reinforcer
Result: response is less likely to occur to the former SD
Respondent Extinction
Procedure: the CS is no longer paired with the US
Result: the CS loses the ability to elicit the CR