Chapter 18

kyrac1997's version from 2017-04-21 00:31

Section 1

Question Answer
Region: TelencephalonStructure: Cerebrum
Region: DiencephalonStructure: Thalamus, Hypothalamus, Epithalamus
Region: MesencephalonStructure: Midbrain, Cerebral aqueduct
Region: MetencephalonStructure: Pons, Cerebellum
Region: MyelencephalonStructure: Medula oblogata

Section 2

Question Answer
Brain stem Medulla oblogata, pons, midbrain
CerebellumSecond largest part of the brain
DiencephalonThalamus, Hypothalamus, Epithalamus
CerebrumLargest part of the brain

Section 3

Question Answer
How do the cranial meninges differ from spinal cord meninges?No epidural space
Falx cerebri separates?2 cerebral hemispheres
Falx cerebelli separates?2 cerebellar hemispheres
Tentorium cerebeli separates? Cerebrum from cerebellum
What is cerebrospinal fluid?Clear fluid/ plasma that circulates in the brain
What are the functions of cerebrospinal fluid?mechanical protection (absorbs shock) circulation (transport materials) Chemical protection (maintain favorable chemical environment)
What is hydrocephaly?Excess CSF production or absorption issue which puts pressure on the brain

Section 4

Question Answer
Where is CSF produced?In choroid plexus
CSF Circulation #1Leaves choroid plexus by interventricular foramina
CSF Circulation #23rd ventricle
CSF Circulation #3Cerebral aqueduct
CSF Circulation #44th ventricle
CSF Circulation #5Subarachnoid space
CSF Circulation #6Central canal of spinal cord
CSF Circulation #7Reabsorbed by arachnoid villi

Section 5

Question Answer
Lateral ventricles in Each of the hemispheres
Third ventricle isAlong the midline
Cerebral aqueduct is in The midbrain
Fourth ventricle is in The brainstem
Part of the brainstem the center of respiration and circulationMedulla oblongata
Part of the brainstem and it connects upper and lower parts of the brainPons
Part of the brainstem in CNS involved with vison, hearing, motor control, alertness, temperatureMidbrain
Blood brain barrier20% of blood supply. determines what substances can cross the barrier

Section 6

Question Answer
Inferior olivaryNeurons relay info to cerebellum from proprioceptiors
Medial leminscusBand of white matte which axons extend to thalamus
Cardiovascular centercontrol heart rate and blood vessel diameter
Respiratory centerControl basic breathing rhythm
Pontine respiratory groupControls respiration
Substanti nigrasubconscious muscle activites: realse dopamine
Red NucleusVoluntary movement of limbs
Mesencephalic nucleusConvery proprioceptive info to the brainstem to contorl skeletal muscles of the head
Which nucleus is associated with Parkinson's disease?Substantinigra
Arbor vitaeTracts of white matter
Cerebellar pedunclesconduct impluses between cerebellum and other parts of the brains
Cerebellar cortexgray natter that form folds called folia
Flocculonodular lobecontributes to equilibrium and balance

Section 7

Question Answer
Anterior nucleusEmotions alertness memory
Medial nucleusemotions learning awareness cognition
Lateral groupemotional expression sensory information and integration
Lateral genticualte nucleussends visual impluses to the primary visual area of the cerebral cortex
Medial genticulate nucleussend auditory impluses to the primary auditory area of the cerebral cortex
intralaminar nucleipain perception, awakening
Mammillary region of hypothalamusposterior aspect ans site of mammilary bodies
Tuberal region of hypothalamuslocation of median eminence/ imfundiblum
Supraotic region of hypothalamussuperior to optic chiasm
Preoptic reagion of hypothalamusregulates certain autonomic functions
Functions of hypothalamuscontrol ANS, horomone production, regulation of emotional and behavioral patterns
infudibulumconnects hypothalamus to pituitary gland
median eminencesecretion collect here before entering portal system
Mammillary bodiesrelays info from amyghala and hippocampus
Hypothalamus regulates behavior and emotion with the limbic system
Hypothalamus regulates eating and drinking bythe paraventricular nuclei (eating) Rising of osmotic pressure for thirst

Section 8

Question Answer
Frontal lobemotor area, broca's speech
parietal lobesomatosensory area
temporal lobeauditory area superior part od gustatory area
occipital lobevisual area. olfactory medial aspect
commissural tractsconduct nerve impluses between gyri in opposite hemispheres
association tractsconduct nerve impluses between gyri in same hemispheres
projection tractsconduct nerve impluses from cerebrum to lower parts of CNS
Primary motor areavoluntary movements
Primary somatosensory cortexcutaneous sensation of the body
Premotor cortexlearned patterned skills such as dancing
wernickes arearecognition of spoken language
Wernickes aphasiapatients speak random words or only say one word not aware of the issue
Brocas aphasiapatients have difficulty forming words. aware of the issue and become frustrated

Section 9

Question Answer
3 basal nuclei (ganglia)Glubus pallidus, putamen, caudate nucleus
functions of the basal nucleihelp initate and terminate movements, suppress unwanted movements, regulate muscle tone
makes up the limbic systemHippocampus, amygdala, olfactory bulb, cingulate, pentate gyrus, thalamus
Hippocampuslong term memory
Amygdalaintense emotion, aggression/fear, memory and emotions
olfactory bulbsmell/memory
cingulatelinking behavioral outcomes/ motivation
pentate gyrusmemory formation and depression

Section 10

Question Answer
CN I Olfactory nerve 1Sensory-smell
CN II Optic nerve 2Sensory- vison
CN III Oculomotor nerve 3Motor- eye and upper eye lid movement
CN IV Troclear nerve 4Motor- eye movement
CN V Trigeminal nerve 5Mixed Sensory- pain touch temp. Motor supply muscles for mastication
CN VI Abducens nerve 6motor- eye movement
CN VII facial nerve 7mixed sensory- taste buds motor- facial expression
CN VIII Vestibulocochlear nerve 8Sensory- hearing
CN IX Glossopharyngeal 9Mixed Sensory- taste buds Motor- Release saliva
CN X Vagus Nerve 10Mixed Sensory propriception stretch motor- swallowing and vocalization
CN XI Accessory nerve 11Motor coordinate head movements
CN XII Hypoglossal nerve 12Motor- nerve impluses for speech and swallowing

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