Chapter 17 Neurological

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Question Answer
What are the four regions of the brainCerebrum—diencephalon—brain steam—cerebellum
What type of matter consist of neuro cell bodies Gray matter
What type of matter consist of myelin sheath that allow impulses to travel faster White matter
Parts of the Cerebral cortex frontal lobe—parietal lobe—occipital lobe—temporal lobe–broca area
Area responsible for language comprehensionWernicke’s area
Part of brain responsible for hemostasisHypothalamus
Part of brain responsible for temp control ,HR, sex drive, appetite and sleep Hypothalamus
Band of skin innervated by sensory root of a single spinal nerve Dermatome
This serves as a form of biological insuranceDermatome
Neurological movement disorder in which sustained muscle contractions cause twisting and repetitive movements or abnormal posturesDystonia
Pathways that carry information about noxious stimuli (pain), temp and touch to the brainSpinothalamic tract
Spinothalamic tract and Posterior column are part of which CNS pathwaySensory Pathway
Corticospinal, Extrapyramidal, Cerebellar system are part of which CNS pathwayMotor Pathway
Give the three important points to consider when doing a neuro exam Mental status—Symmetry—weather anomalies related to CNS or PNS
How is the neuro assessment organizedMental—speech(language)—cranial nerves—motor—sensory—reflex
What tools are used to assess paina disposable object



Question Answer
Give scale of graded muscle strength 0-5
Normal strength5
Patient overcome opposing movement 5
If patient can only move against gravity3
Assessment= ask patient to pat the knees with both hands, lift up, turn hands over and pat the knees with the back of the handsCoordination and skilled movements
Assessment= with eyes open, ask the person to touch your index finger with his index finger. Then ask patient to touch his own nose with his index fingerFinger to Finger Touch
Assessment= Ask the patient to close their eyes and to stretch out their arms, then ask them to touch the tip of their nose with each index finger, alternating hands and increasing speed Finger to Finger Touch
Tandem WalkingAsk patient to walk a straight line (heel to toe). Patient should not loose his balance.
Romberg TestAsk the patient to stand up with feet together and arms at the side. Ask patient to close his eyes. Assess the patient’s ability to maintain balance. Ask patient to hop in place.
Assessment= tap a 128-Hz tuning fork on your hand, then place it on the DIP joint of the patient’s finger. Ask the patient, “Do you feel a buzz? Tell me when it stops.” Likewise test over the joint of the big toevibration test
Assessment= hold the big toe by its sides between your thumb and index finger, pull it away from the other toes, and move it up then down. Ask the patient to identify the direction of movementproprioception


Question Answer
Total number of peripheral nerves31 pairs
Give the number of nerves involved in the specific area cervical8
Give the number of nerves involved in the specific area thoracic12
Give the number of nerves involved in the specific lumbar area 5
Give the number of nerves involved in the specific sacral area 1


Question Answer
Assess________to test the ability of the sensory cortex to analyze and interpret sensations discriminative sensation
Assessment=Place a key or familiar object in the patient’s hand and ask the patient to identify itStereognosis
Assessment=Outline a large number in the patient’s palm and ask the patient to identify the numberNumber identification (graphesthesia)
Assessment=Using two ends of an opened paper clip, or two pins, touch the finger pad in two places simultaneously; ask the patient to identify 1 touch or 2Two-point discrimination
Assessment=Lightly touch a point on the patient’s skin and ask the patient to point to that spotPoint localization
Assessment= Touch an area on both sides of the body at the same time and ask if the patient feels 1 spot or 2Extinction
Reflex grades0-4