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Chapter 16 Musculoskeletal

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madamj2004's version from 2016-03-06 05:03

Chapter 16 Musculoskeletal

Question Answer
Parts of articular structureInclude joint capsule and articular cartilage, synovium and synovial fluid, intra-articular ligaments, and juxta-articular bone
Parts of extra-articular structureinclude periarticular ligaments, tendons, bursae, muscle, fascia, bone, nerve, and overlying skin
Define Ligamentsropelike bundles of collagen fibrils that connect bone to bone
Define Tendon collagen fibers connecting muscle to bone
Define Cartilage collagen matrix overlying bony surfaces
Define Bursaepouches of synovial fluid that cushion the movement of tendons and muscles over bone or other joint structures
Type of Synovial joint ball in socket—Hinge—condylar
Spheroidal joint give sampleshoulder and knee
Hinge give sampleelbow—interphalangeal joints of hand and foot
Condylar give sampleknee--TMJ
Synovial joint defineJoint is freely movable --Bones are covered by articular cartilage--Bones are separated by synovial cavity--Synovial membrane secretes synovial fluid that lubricates joint movement
Fluid that moisturize jointsSynovial fluid
Cartilagous joints define Joint is slightly movable --Bones separated by fibrocartilaginous discs--Discs contain nucleus pulposus that cushions bony movement
Cartilagous joints sample vertebral bodies of the spine
Fibrous joints define Joints have no appreciable movement--Bones separated by fibrous tissue or cartilage
Fibrous joints give samplesutures of the skull
When inspecting the joints what to dosymmetry, alignment, deformities, ROM
Symptoms of carpal tunnel syndrome Pain or numbness of the first three fingers of the hand, but not in the palm, especially at night--Loss of sensation in distribution of the medial nerve
Tinel’s sign (assessment) Carpal tunnel syndrome test-- tingling with tapping over the median nerve as it enters the carpal tunnel
Phalen sign (assessment)Carpal tunnel syndrome test-- numbness or tingling with pressing backs of hands together in acute flexion for 60 seconds
Symptom of Kyphosisenhanced thoracic curve
Symptom Lordosispronounced lumbar curve (common in obese and pregnant)
Symptom of Scoliosislateral curvature of thoracic and lumbar segments of the spine. Usually with some rotation of involved vertebral bodies.
Purpose of the Scoliometerdevice used gauge scoliosis-- Refer to a physician with a reading of seven degrees or greater
How to inspect gait(2 phase)check swing ---width of base
Location of the Ballote of the patellacompress supra-patellar pouch and push patella sharply against femur - watch for fluid returning to pouch
Foot ROM planter flexion(toward floor), dorsiflexion(toward ceiling), inversion(heel inward), eversion(point outward)
Babinski test when is it normal and abnormalfanning out in infants (normal), fanning out in adults (abnormal))
Cauda equine syndrome s/slow back pain, urinary or bowel incontinence, motor weakness or sensory loss in both legs, and saddle anesthesia (unable to feel anything in the body areas that would sit on a saddle).
Cauda equine syndrome (in teenager) explainRare-- is a severe neurological disorder that can lead to incontinence and even permanent paraplegia if left untreated—watch for sudden back pain in teenage—medical emergency
Rheumatoid arthritis s/s Locations: Hands, feet, wrists--Pattern: Symmetrical--Onset: Insidious--Tender, warm and seldom red joints--Stiffness: Often 1 hour--Associated with limitation of motion, weakness, fatigue, weight loss.
Osteoarthritis s/s Locations: knees, hips, hands--Pattern: Only one joint may be involved--Onset: Insidious--Possible tender, rarely red or warm--Stiffness: 15-30 mins--Associated with limitation of motion, with no generalized symptoms.
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