Chapter 15 Parenterals

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Section 1

Question Answer
Injections sterile, pyrogen-free preparations intended to be administered parenterally.
parenteral injectable routes of administration.
enteron intestine
Pyrogens, or bacterial endotoxins,are organic metabolic products shed from gram- negative bacteria, which can cause fever and hypotension in patients when they are in excessive amounts in intravenous (IV) injections.
Endotoxinsa subset of pyrogens that come from gram-negative bacteria.
Insulinthe active principle of the pancreas gland, is primarily concerned with the metabolism of carbohydrates but also influences protein and fat metabolism.

Section 2

Question Answer
intrasynovialjoint fluid area
intraspinalspinal column
intrathecalspinal fluid
intravenous, IVvein
intramuscular, IMmuscle
intradermal, ID;into the skin
subcutaneous, SC; sub-Q, SQ; hypodermic, hypo)under the skin

Section 3

Question Answer
Intravenous Routeprovide rapid action,it cannot be retrieved.
Intramuscular RouteInjections of drugs provide effects that are less rapid but generally longer lasting than those obtained from IV administration. Aqueous or oleaginous solutions or suspensions of drug substances may be administered intramuscularly
Subcutaneous Routeroute may be used for injection of small amounts of medication.
Intradermal Route substances may be effectively injected into the corium, the more vascular layer of the skin just beneath the epidermis.

Section 4

Question Answer
thrombus blood clot formed within the blood vessel (or heart), usually because of slowing of the circulation or an alteration of the blood or vessel wall.
embolus clot circulates,blood stream until it lodges in a blood vessel,
embolism block or occlusion
Patient-controlled analgesia (PCA)used to control the pain associated with a variety of surgical procedures, labor, sickle cell crisis, and cancer.
PCA devicesyringe or chamber that contains the analgesic drug and a programmable electromechanical unit.

Section 5

Question Answer
Water for InjectionPurified by distillation or by reverse osmosis and meets the same standards for the presence of total solids as does Purified Water, USP
Sterile Water for Injection, USP,is packaged in single-dose containers not larger than 1 L
Bacteriostatic Water for Injection, USPis sterile water for injection containing one or more suitable antimicrobial agents. It is packaged in pre filled syringes or in vials containing not more than 30 mL of the water
Sodium Chloride Injection, USP, a sterile isotonic solution of sodium chloride in water for injection.
Bacteriostatic Sodium Chloride Injection, USPis a sterile isotonic solution of sodium chloride in water for injection. It contains one or more suitable antimicrobial agents, which must be specified on the labeling.
Ringer’s Injection, USPis a sterile solution of sodium chloride, potassium chloride, and calcium chloride in water for injection.

Section 6

Question Answer
sterilizationmeans destruction of all living organisms and their spores or their complete removal from the preparation.
used to sterilize phar- maceutical products:1. Steam 2. Dry heat 3. Filtration 4. Gas 5. Ionizing radiation
Steam Sterilizationis conducted in an auto- clave and employs steam under pressure. It is usually the method of choice if the product can withstand it
Dry Heat Sterilizationsterilization is usually carried out in ovens designed for this purpose.
Sterilization by Filtrationphysical removal of microorganisms by adsorption on the filter medium or by a sieving mechanism, is used for heat-sensitive solutions.
Gas Sterilizationheat-sensitive and moisture-sensitive materials can be sterilized much better by exposure to ethylene oxide or propylene oxide gas than by other means.
Sterilization by Ionizing Radiationsterilization of some types of pharmaceuticals by gamma rays and by cathode rays,

Section 7

Question Answer
InjectionLiquid preparations that are drug substances or solutions thereof
For injectionDry solids that, upon addition of suitable vehicles, yield solutions conforming in all respects to the requirements for injections
Injectable emulsionLiquid preparation of drug substance dissolved or dispersed in a suitable emulsion medium
Injectable suspensionLiquid preparation of solid suspended in a suitable liquid medium
For injectable suspensionDry solid that, upon addition of suitable vehicle, yields preparation conforming in all respects to the requirements for injectable suspensions

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