Chapter 13 Solutions

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Section 1

Question Answer
Alcohol, USP: Ethyl Alcohol, Ethanol, C2H5OH It is used as a primary sol- vent for many organic compounds. Together with water, it forms a hydroalcoholic mix- ture that dissolves both alcohol-soluble and water-soluble substances, a feature especially useful in the extraction of active constituents from crude drugs.
Diluted Alcohol, NFis prepared by mixing equal volumes of Alcohol, USP, and Purified Water, USP.
Rubbing Alcohol70% ethyl alcohol by volume, the remainder consisting of water, denaturants with or without color additives and perfume oils, and stabilizers.
Glycerin, USP (Glycerol), CH2OH·CHOH·CH2OHclear syrupy liquid with a sweet taste.
Isopropyl Rubbing Alcohol70% by volume isopropyl alcohol, the remainder consisting of water with or without color additives, stabilizers, and perfume oils.
Propylene Glycol, USP, CH3CH(OH) CH2OH a viscous liquid, is miscible with water and alcohol.
Purified Water, USP, H2Oimpure, containing varying amounts of dissolved inorganic salts, usually sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, and iron; chlorides; sulfates; and bicarbonates, along with dissolved and undissolved organic matter and microorganisms.
Ways of obtaining water Distillation Method/Ion Exchange Method/Reverse Osmosis
methods of expressing the strengths of pharmaceutical preparations percent or ration (w/v, v/v, or w/w)
solutionsliquid preparations that contain one or more chemical substances dissolved in a suitable solvent or mixture of mutually miscible sol- vents
Magnesium Citrate Oral Solutioncolorless to slightly yellow clear effervescent liquid having a sweet, acidulous taste and a lemon flavor. It is commonly referred to as citrate or as citrate of magnesia.
Syrups concentrated aqueous preparations of a sugar or sugar substitute with or without flavoring agents and medicinal substances.
Nonmedicated or flavored vehiclesSyrups containing flavoring agents but not medicinal substances
Components of Syrups(a) the sugar, usually sucrose, or sugar substitute used to provide sweetness and viscosity; (b) antimicrobial preservatives; (c) flavorants; and (d) colorants.
Preparation of Syrups(a) solution of the ingredients with the aid of heat, (b) solution of the ingredients by agitation without the use of heat or the simple admixture of liquid components, (c) addition of sucrose to a prepared medicated liquid or to a flavored liquid, and (d) perco- lation of either the source of the medicating substance or the sucrose.

Section 2

Question Answer
Elixirsclear, sweetened hydroalcoholic solutions intended for oral use and are usu- ally flavored to enhance their palatabil- ity.
Syrups concentrated aqueous preparations of a sugar or sugar substitute with or without flavoring agents and medicinal substances.
solutionsliq- uid preparations that contain one or more chemical substances dissolved in a suitable solvent or mixture of mutually miscible sol- vents
Tincturesalcoholic or hydroalcoholic solu- tions prepared from vegetable materials or from chemical substances
Spraysaqueous or ole- aginous solutions in the form of coarse drop- lets or as finely divided solids to be applied topically, most usually to the nasopharyn- geal tract or to the skin.
Douche powdersare aqueous solution directed against a part or into a cavity of the body for cleansing or antiseptic effect
Retention Enemasadministered rectally for local effects or for systemic absorption
Evacuation EnemasRectal enemas are used to cleanse the bowel.
Aromatic watersclear, aqueous solutions saturated with volatile oils or other aromatic or volatile substances.
Diluted acidsaqueous solutions prepared by diluting the corresponding concentrated acids with purified water.
Spiritsalcoholic or hydroalcoholic solu- tions of volatile substances.
Linimentsalcoholic or oleaginous solu- tions or emulsions of various medicinal sub- stances intended to be rubbed on the skin.
Collodionsare liquid preparations composed of pyroxylin dissolved in a solvent mixture usually composed of alcohol and ether with or without added medicinal substances.
Collodiona clear or slightly opalescent vis- cous liquid prepared by dissolving pyroxylin (4%w/v) in a 3:1 mixture of ether and alco- hol.
Flexible Collodion prepared by adding 2% camphor and 3% castor oil to collodion.
Salicylic Acid Collodion10% solution of salicylic acid in flexible collodion
Extractsconcentrated preparations of veg- etable or animal drugs obtained by removal of the active constituents of the respective drugs with suitable menstrua, evaporation of all or nearly all of the solvent, and adjust- ment of the residual masses or powders to the prescribed standards
Fluidextractsare liquid preparations of vegetable drugs prepared by percolation. They contain alcohol as a solvent, preservative, or both

Section 3

Question Answer
MacerationIt is a process in which the properly comminuted drug is per- mitted to soak in the menstruum until the cellular structure is softened and penetrated by the menstruum and the soluble constitu- ents are dissolved.
Percolation process in which a comminuted drug is extracted of its soluble constituents by the slow passage of a suitable solvent through a column of the drug.