Chapter 12; the integumentary system

tigrebright's version from 2015-11-09 03:00

Section 1

Question Answer
cutane/o; dermat/o; derm/oskin
kerat/ohorny, hard
lip/ofat, lipid
melan/oblack, dark
onych/ofingernail or toenail
pil/i; pil/ohair
urtic/orash, hives

Section 2

Question Answer
functions of the skinfirst line of defense for the body; waterproofs the body; major receptor for touch; helps synthesize vit d
sebaceous glandssecrete sebum
sebumoil that lubricates the skin and discourages the growth of bacteria on the skin
sweat glandshelp regulate body temperature and water content by secreting sweat
hairhelps control the loss of body heat
nailsprotect the dorsal surface of the fingers and toes
cutaneouspertaining to the skin
epidermisoutermost layer of skin; does not contain blood vessels or connective tissue

Section 3

Question Answer
epithelial tissuesform a protective covering for all of the internal and external surfaces of the body
squamous epithelial tissuethe upper layer of the epidermis; consists of flat, scaly cells that are continuously shed
basal layerlowest layer of the epidermis; here new cells are produced and then pushed upward
keratina fibrous, water-repellent protein
soft keratina primary component of the epidermis
hard keratinfound in the hair and nails
melanocytesspecial cells that are also found in the basal cell layer; they produce and contain melanin
melaninthe pigment that determines the color of the skin; depending upon the type and amount of melanin present

Section 4

Question Answer
dermisthe thick layer of living tissue directly below the epidermis; contains connective tissue, blood and lymph vessels and nerve fibers
sensory nerve endingssensory receptors in the dermis responsible for touch, temperature, pain and pressure
collagenglue; a tough, flexible, fibrous protein material found in the skin, bones, cartilage, tendons and ligamentsw
mast cellsfound in the connective tissue of the dermis; respond to injury,etc. by producing and releasing substances such as heparin and histamine
histaminecauses allergy signs such as itching and increased mucus secretion
subcutanious layerlocated just below the layers of the skin and connects the skin to the surface muscles; made up of adipose tissue and loose connective tissue
adipose tissuefat
lipocytesfat cells; manufacture and large quantities of fat

Section 5

Question Answer
sebacious glandslocated in the dermis layer and closely associated with hair follicles
sebumoily substance released through ducts opening into the hair follicles
sweat glandssudoriferous glands; tiny, coiled glands found on almost all body surfaces
poresopenings on the surface of the skin that act as ducts of the sweat glands
perspirationsweat; 99% water plus some salt and metabolic waste products
hidrosisproduction and excretion of perspiration
hair fibersrod-like structures composed of tightly fused, dead protein cells filled with hard keratin
hair folliclessacs that hold the root of hair fibers
arrector pilitiny muscle fibers attached to hair follicles that cause the hair to stand erect

Section 6

Question Answer
unguisfingernail or toenail
nail bodytranslucent, closely molded to the surface of the underlying tissues; made of hard, keratinized plates of epidermal cells
nail bedjoins the nail body to the underlying connective tissue and nourished the nail
free edgeportions of the nail not attached to the nail bed
lunulapale half-moon-shaped region at every nail root;the area where new keratin cells form
cuticlenarrow band of epidermis attached to the surface of the nail just in front of the root, protecting new keratin cells as they form
nail rootfastens the nail to the finger or toe by fitting into a groove in the skin