# Chapter 12 - Problem Solving

supulora's version from 2015-12-17 20:46

## Section

What is a problem?A obstacle between a present state and a goal
: path to solution is unclear, no one "correct" answerIll-Defined
What is Gestalt's approach?Representing a problem in the mind. Restructuring the problem changes the representation
What is Insight problem solving?A sudden realization of a problem's solution. Often requires restructuring the problem
What was the purpose of Metcalfe and Wiebe's (1987) experiment?Purpose of the experiment was to demonstrate a difference between how people solve insight and non-insight problems
How are non-insight problems solved? Give an example.Non-insight problems are gradually solved. Example: Algebra
Name 2 obstacles to problem solving.1) Functional Fixedness 2) Situationally produced mental set
What is functional Fixedness?Restricting use of an object to its familiar function
What is Situationally produced mental set?Situation influences approach to the problem. Based on persons past experience w/ the problem.
What is means-end analysis?Reduces differences between initial and goal states
What is the purpose of subgoals?create intermediate states closer to goal.
Name 3 ways that can affect the importance of how a problem is stated1) Acrobat and reverse acrobat problem 2) Mutilated checkerboard problem 3)Think-aloud protocol
One small change in wording of a problem is known as ?Acrobat and reverse acrobat problem
How MUCH information provided can be an issue. Easier to solve when information is provided that points toward the correct representation of the problem. This is known as?Mutilated-checkerboard problem
This can produce shift in how one perceives elements of a problem.Think-aloud protocol
In Gick and Holyoak's (1980, 1983) experiment, what were the 3 steps when using analogies to solve problems?1) Noticing Relationship 2) Mapping 3) Applying mapping
: The process of comparing two problems; entails determination of similarities Analogical encoding
In Duncker's solving radiation problem, which percentage was the highest?When Pts were told to think about fortress story. (More hints were given, hence the higher %)
For experts, Knowledge is better organized so it can be accessed when needed to work on a problem. Novices used ( ) features while experts use ( ) structures.Surface, Deep.
Creativity consists of: (3)1) Innovative thinking 2) Novel Ideas 3) New connections btwn existing ideas
: open-ended; large number of potential "solutions"Divergent thinking
: participants find novel uses for common objects (e.g., shoe)Alternate Uses test