Chapter 12 & Parts 2-4 (Ch 13)

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Question Answer
structures of the brain and the basic functions of each
gyrielevated ridges of tissue/twisters
sulcifurrows/ shallow grooves; several of these divide each hemisphere into 5 Lobes
central suclusseparates frontal lobe from parietal lobe
lateral sulcusoutlines temporal lobe ; separates it from parietal & frontal lobes
Each Cerebral Hemisphere3 basic regions: cerebral cortex of gray matter; internal White matter; Basal Nuclei/islands of gray matter w/in white matter
cebral cortexour conscious mind; be aware/communicate/memory/undrstand/initate voluntary movements/sensations (p. 385)
pyramidial cellsLarge neurons; w/i these gyri r/t conciously control skilled voluntary mov't (p. 387)
Motor AreasPrimary motor cortex/ premorto cortex/ Broca's Speech/ Frontal Eye Field (p. 386)
Somatotopymapping of body in CNS structures; body is represented upside down
Sensory areas: r/t conscious of awareness of sensation occur in theParietal/Insular/temporal & Occipital Lobes
Amount of Sensory Cortex Devoted to body regionR/t region's sensitivity (How many receptors it has) NOT its size (p.389)
Cerebral Cortex (gray matter)contains 3 kinds of functional areas(1) motor areas (2) sensory areas (3) association areas
white matterdeep to gray matter; responsible for communcation b/t cerebral rars b/t cerebral cortex & lower CNS centers
Classification of White Matter via directionAssociation, Commisural, or Projection
diecephalonthalamus, hypothalamus, and epithalamus (these 3 gray matter areas make up the 3rd Ventricle)
brain stem (region)midbrain, pons, & medulla oblongata
cerebellumprofidees precise timeing & patterns of skeletal muscle ctx for smooth, coordinated mov't & agility for daily living
Purkinje cellslocated in cerebellar cortex; Only cortical neurons that send axons thru white matter to synapse with central nuclei of cerebellum
ipsilateralall fibers entering & leaving cerebellum are from the same side of the body; afffect the same side; UNLIKE cerebral cortex
somatosensory honumculuslargest regionsface/fingertips (especially lips) largest parts of it /;l
fissuresdeeper groves separate large regions of brain
longitudinal fissureseperates cerebral hemispheres
transverse cerebral fissureseperates cerebral hemispheres from the cerebellum below
meninges and their functions
nerve pathways within the cerebral hemisphere that allow communicationWhite matter of spinal cord allow communication b/t diff't parts of spical cord & b/t cord & brain
posterior association area (multimodal association area)posterior association area / involved in understanding written & spoken language
lateralizationhemisphere has abilities not completely shared by its partner
Ascending and Descending pathways to the PNS
parts of the spinal cord and their basic functionsfrom foramen magnum of skull to first or second lumbar vertebra, just inferior to ribs
ventral rootsmotor neurons sending axons out to skeletal muscles (effector organs)
dorsal rootsafferent fibers carrying impulse from peripheral sensory receptors
the reflexes (i.e. what causes your eye to dilate or constrict, or your knee reflex)
cranial nerves and what they control
Regions and organization of the brain(1) Cerebral hemispheres (2)diecephalon(3)brain stem(4)cerebellum
lateral ventriclespaired; C-shaped champers reflect the pattern of cerebral growth
cerebral hemispheres83% of brain mass; cap & cover diencephalon & top of brain stem
Functional brain systems work 2gther & span relatively large distances in brain. Can be localized to specific regions (Limbic System & Reticular Formation) p. 404 table
limbic system"ring" around upper pt of brain stem; our emotional or affective (feelings) brain
reticular formationits neurons form 3 columns: raphe nuclei* medial(large cell) group of nuclei* lateral (small cell) group of nuclei.
Higher mental functions
Protection of the brainbone (teh skull), membranes (meninges) & watery cushion (cerebral spinal fluid) & (blood brain barrier)
meninges3 connective tissue membranes external to CNS organs; cover/protect CNS/Blood Vessels/Contain CSF/Form Partitions in Skull
dura matertough mother/ strongest meninx; has a more superficial perosteal layer that links to skull & meningeal layer
Arachnoid Materspider web-like extensions span & secure its layer to underlying pia mater
pia matergentle mother/ delicate connective tissue ; clings tightly to brains every convolution
CSFgives buoyance to brain; prevents it from crushing under its own weight/ protects brain & cord from blows & other trauma (p. 414)
blood brain barrierastrocyte feet suppy signals to endothelial cells causing them to make tight junctions that form the blood brain barrier
The spinal cord2 way conduction pathway to & from brain; major reflex center;
Nerve: organ/ cord like pt of PNS. R/t parallel bundles of axons p. 471
Question Answer
endoneuriumloose connective tissue encloses fibers assoc w/ Schwann cells
Mixed nervessensory/motor fibers; impusle 2 & from CNS
ganlgiacell bodies in PNS
nucleicell bodies in CNS
Cranial nerves# most rostral to most caudal
Largest Cranial NerveV Trigeminal Pons to Face p 478
All motor fibers arePNS efferents; except skeletal @ pharynx & larynx
Key Center r/t sensorimotor integrationcerebellum p. 493
Optic (II)outgrowth of brain tract
Spinal nerves
Motor endings and motor activity
The reflex arc
Spinal reflexesspinal reflexes initiate & complete & spinal level (p. 418)