Chapter 11

imissyou419's version from 2017-04-19 23:27


Question Answer
Chief Information Officer (CIO)acts as the principal manager of the IT department; reports to CEO or COO (Chief operating officer)
Chief Technology Officer (CTO)heads the technology department; needs deep knowledge of IT and ability to envision how new IT will affect organization over time; reports to CIO
IT department includes:technology office (CTO), operations, development, outsourcing relations, data administration
Technology/technology officemost IT departments have this, to investigate new information systems technologies and determine how the organization can benefit from them; CTO sorts through new ideas and identify those that are relevant to the organization
Operationsmanage the computing infrastructure, incl. individual computers, computer centres, networks, communications media; includes system and network admin; monitor user experience and respond to user concerns or problems
Developmentmanage projects that acquire new information systems and maintain existing information systems; if programs are not developed in hourse - department staffed primarily by business analysts and system analysts who work with users, operations, vendors to acquire and install licensed software and set up system components around that software; if program in house, will also incl. programmers, project managers, test engineers, technical writers, other developing personnel
Outsourcing relationsexist in organizations that have negotiated outsourcing agreements with other companies to provide equipment, applications, or other services; require constant attention, monitors service levels and focuses on developing good relations with outsourcing vendors
Data administrationprotect the data and information assets by establishing data standards and data management practices and policies
Project managerresponsible for interacting with the client and moving the project successfully towards completion
Lead designer/analystresponsible for understanding client needs and developing the overall look and feel of the site and all design elements (colours, navigation, graphics, buttons, animations, etc)
Developerresponsible for taking the design and creating the functioning site; usually specializes in static contents (i.e. information that is not automatically updated)
Technical architectresponsible for making decisions about technical issues related to the site, including server/browser support, database integration, administrator access, and any scripting issues
like IT boss that fixes issues
Competitive strategya plan that aims to give a business a long-term advantage over its competitiors;
Use Porter's 5 forces model to consider the industry structure and then develop a competitive strategy for the organization, this competitive strategy is supported through activities in the value chain, which consists of a collection of business processes supported by information systems
IT architecturebasic framework for all computers, systems, and information management that support organizational services; complex, complexity increase as more service are supported and different technologies are used
No standards yet
typically a complicated doc
first step to understand how IS support business objectives
Enterprise architectscreate a blueprint of an organization's information systems and management of these systems; the blueprint should provide an overview that helps people in the organization better understand current investments in technology and plan for changes;
considers organizational objectives, business processes, databases, information flows, operating systems, application and software, supporting technology
Zachman frameworkan IT architectural framework that divides systems into 2 dimensions:
6 reasons for communication (what - data, how - function, where - network, who - people, why - motivation), stakeholder programs (planner, owner, designer, builders, implementer, worker)
Alignmentthe process of matching organizational objectives with IT architecture
Not a straightforward process (e.g. low-cost retailers vs high-end technology - Walmart is a low-cost retailer but spends more than avg on high-end technology to make more efficient decisions and operate more effectively)
Measured as the degree to which the IT department's missions, objectives, and plans overlap with the overall business missions, objective, and plans
Ongoing continuous challenge (fitting IT architecture to business objectives)
The most important indicator of alignment is the successful communication b/w business and IT executives
Information system governancethe development of consistent, cohesive management policies and verifiable internal processes for information technology and related services; goal is to improve benefits of an organization's IT investment over time: reporting structures, review processes, improve quality, reduce cost and delivery time, reduce IT risks, better support business processes
Ensures organization provide "good" results, avoid "bad" results
Establishment of rules applying to: sourcing, privacy, security, internal investments

Increased need to report and disclose IS operational information will require employees at all levels of an organization to become more familiar with the issues facing information technology management
Senior business managers are required to make assertions about the control on IS that will expose them to both financial and criminal penalities
stakeholder's value can be increased bybetter aligning with business objectives, improving service quality, and controlling IT risks; reduce service costs and delivery time
Sarbanes-Oxley Act (SOX) in US and Budget Measures Act in ONin place to force companies to comply with governance standards for collecting, reporting, and disclosing info;
prevent corporate fraud;
Governs reporting of publicly held companies;
increase the level of responsibility and accountability of executive management;
require internal controls sufficient to produce reliable financial statements and protect the organization's assets, Issue statement indicating this has been done
Organization's external auditor issue an opinion on the quality of controls & management's statements
Expose management & external auditor to FINANCIAL AND POTENTIAL CRIMINAL LIABILITY if events show the internal controls were defective
SOX setting internal controlsseparation of duties & authorities in account payment e.g. someone to authorize the expense, someone to issue the cheque, someone to account for the transaction
SOX If computer-based accounting system used for the production of financial statementsappropriate controls in place to ensure reliability
SOX IS production of assets that are subject to liabilitye.g. order-processing IS store customer info, must ensure only authorized access to information
Information systems auditexamination and verification of a company's information resources that are used to collect, store, process, and retrieve information - includes organization's IS policies and procedures; Many firms offer IS audit services: Information Systems Audit & Control Association (ISACA), and Certified Information Systems Auditor (CISA)
Certified Information System Auditor (CISA)a professional certification for IT audit
Information System Audit and Control Association (ISACA)an organization that develops standards for IT audit and governance
Control Objectives for Information and Related Technology (COBIT)a framework of best practices designed for IT management
Developed by Information Systems Audit and Control Association and IT Governance Institute
Provides board members, managers, auditors & IT users a set of accepted measures, indicators, processes and best practices to assist them in getting the best from their organization IT investment
Allows management to benchmark the security & control practices for IT control, Users of IT services to be assured security and control exist, Auditors to substantiate their opinions on internal control and advise on IT security and control matters
Addresses issues from 3 dimensions: business objectives (effectiveness, efficiency, confidentality, integrity, availability, compliance & reliability), IT resources (people, application systems, technology, facilities, and data), IT processes (planning & organization, acquisition & implementation, delivery & support, monitoring)
Information system ethnicsconcerned with people involved in the system, not hardware or software; not about detailing approperiate rules for our behaviour but about understanding our behaviour (thinking and acting that affects other)
Green IT/green computingusing IT resources to better support the triple bottom line; goals: improve energy efficiency, promote recyclability, and reduce the use of material that are hazardous to our environment
Considers the effect of choices on people and environment
Triple bottom lineincludes measures of traditional profit, ecological and social performance
ENERGY STAR programinternational government/industry partnership to produce equipment that meets high-energy efficiency specifications or promote the use of such equipment
E-cyclingrecycling electronic computing devices; e-waste industry has recently developed and is expanding quickly
Jobs that are highest demand in IT industry require what skills?a mix of interpersonal and technical skills
SOXgoal to strengthen and upgrade financial reporting, thus maintain and improve trust in public companies' financial reports; large companies expected to divert more than 15% of their IS budget to SOX compliance

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