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Chapter 10

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imissyou419's version from 2017-04-18 04:05

Section

Question Answer
5 ways to acquire software1. buy it and use it as it is,
2. buy it and customize it (most common),
3. rent or lease it,
4. build it yourself,
5. outsource it
is acquiring new software applications the same thing as acquiring new information systems?no, there is more to systems than just software (involves incorporating software into current technological infrastructure and integrating software into data and procedures people use to make things happen in an organization); cost associated with integrating software
Project Managment Body of Knowledge (PMBOK)a guide published (1996) by Project Management Institute notes that a project "consists of a temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product, service, or result"
PMBOK 5 process groups in any project1. initiating,
2. planning,
3. executing,
4. controlling and monitoring,
5. closing
IT projectsbusiness projects that have a large IT component
change business processes, change information systems, change information technology
Information technology project management (ITPM)the collection of techniques and methods that project managers use to plan, coordinate, and complete IT projects
the tools include work breakdown structures, budgeting methods, graphical scheduling methods such as PERT (Program Evaluation Review Technique) and Gantt charts, risk management techniques, communication planning, high-tech team development
9 project knowledge areas1. integration management,
2. scope management,
3. time management,
4. cost management,
5. quality management,
6. human resource management,
7. commmunications management,
8. risk management,
9. procurement management
Project management professionals (PMPs)professionals with certified project management skills
IT operationselements of a business that provides the delivery of service, maintenance and protection of IT infrastructure for the organization
- report to CIO and MIS director
- provide IT services to support business units in organization
- manage the IT, data resource, and system applications
Production systemactive systems that support operations
some people in IT department are responsible for changing the production system rather than maintaining them
Information technology infrastructure library (ITIL)a well-organized collection of books that provide a framework of best-practice approaches to IT operations
IT project riskinherent risk in undertaking a new IT project
System development life cycle (SDLC)classic process used to acquire information systems,
5 processes: 1. system definition, 2. requirement analysis, 3. component design, 4. implementation, 5. system maintenance
System development basic tasks to successfully acquire and maintain information systems combined into phases of system development
Agile methodsmore nimble methods of system development; SCRUM and XP emerged a movement towards agile methods
A way of developing information systems
System analysisconsists of the first 2 phases in SDLC, where business manager is most likely to be involved in
(system definition, requirement analysis)
System definition phaseto define the goals and scope of the new information system;
must access cost feasibility, schedule feasibility (whether organization has time and money to complete the project), technical feasibility (whether existing information technology is likely to be able to meet the needs of the new system), and organization feasibility (whether new system fits within the organization's customs, culture, charter, or legal requirements), form project team, plan project
Requirement analysis phaseused to form the project team and define the necessary requirements; the work of analysis and design is done by business analysts and system analysts
easiest and cheapest time to alter information system (changing is changing description)
Commercial on-the-shelf (COTS) softwarenever exactly fits an organization's requirement
Component design phaseconsists of each of the 5 components of the information system being properly designed;
determine hardware specifications
determine software specifications (depends on source)
design the database
design procedures includes: procedures for normal processing, backup, and failure recovery
create job definitions
Implementation phaseoccurs when all design is complete; has 2 elements: test plan, system conversion
BUILD SYSTEM COMPONENTS
conduct unit test
integrate components
conduct integrated test
convert to new system
Test planconsists of sequences of actions that users take when using the new system;
includes normal and incorrect actions;
includes product quality assurance (PGA) testing (constructing the test plan with advice and assistance of users, PGA test engineers perform testing and supervise the user's test activity) and beta testing (the process of allowing future system users to try out the new system on their own)
System conversioninstallation; converting business activity from old system to the new; 4 ways to implement a system conversion: pilot, phased, parallel, plounge
Pilot installationsystem is installed in only part of the business; if system fails, failure is contained within a limited boundary
Phased installationsystem is installed in phases across the organization; some systems are tightly integrated and cannot be installed in phased pieces
Parallel installationnew system runs in parallel with the old until new system is tested and fully operational; expensive b/c incur the cost of running both systems, users must work double time, provide easy fallback if new system fails
Plunge installationthe new system is installed and the old system is shut down; organizations should avoid this b/c if new system fails, organization is in trouble
Maintenance phaseused to track failures and enhancements
record requests for change: failure and enhancements
prioritize requests
fix failures: patches, service packs, new releases
Patcheshigh priority failure fixes that can be applied to all copies of a given product
Service packsbundles fixes for low priority problems
Waterfall methodsequential design process in which progress is seen as flowing steadily downwards through the SDLC
Analysis paralysishappens when analysts overanalyze a situation to the point where no action is taken place e.g. projects in which people spend so much time documenting requirements
Outsourcingprocess of hiring another organization to perform a service; any business activity in the value chain can be outsourced
Application service providers (ASPs)a particular form of outsourcing where an organization contracts with a vendor to "rent" applications from the company on a fee-for-service basis; vendor maintains the system at its own web location, and the client organization accesses the application on the vendor's website rather than the vendor maintaining the system at the organization's location; vendor offers standardized software to many companies while maintaining only a single site (where the actual application resides)
Design vs Implementation phaseDesign
- determine hardware specs
- select off the shelf programs, design alternations and custom programs, as necessary
- design database and related structures
- design user and operations procedures
- develop users and operations job descriptions

Implementation
- obtain, install, and test hardware
- license and install off-the-shelf programs, write alternations and custom programs, test programs
- create database, fill with data. test data
- document procedures, create training programs, review and test procedures
- hire and train personnel
Outsourcing risksLoss of control
- vendor in driver's seat
- technology direction
- potential loss of intellectual capital
- product fixes, enhancements in wrong priority
- vendor management, direction, or identity changes

Benefits outweighed by long-term costs
- high unit cost, forever
- paying for someone else' mismanagement
- in time, outsource vendor is de fact sole source
- may not get what you pay for but don't know it

No easy exit
- critical knowledge in minds of vendors, not employees
- expensive and risky to change vendors
memorize

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