Chapter 10 Visual Imagery

supulora's version from 2015-12-17 20:24

Section 1

Question Answer
Experiencing a sensory impression in the absence of sensory input is known as?Mental Imagery
"Seeing" in the absence of a visual stimulus is known as?Visual Imagery
Why is visual imagery useful?Provides a way of thinking that adds to another dimension to purely verbal techniques
What was the purpose of Shepard and Meltzer's experiment?Have participants mentally rotate one object to see if it matched another object. Demonstrated that imagery and perception may share the same mechanism.
What were the results to Kosslyn's (1973) experiment? Pts were asked to memorize a picture, create an image of it, then move from one part of the picture to another.Results: Took longer for participants to mentally move long distances than shorter distances
What were the results to Kosslyn's (1978) experiment? Pts were asked to study a figure of island with 7 locations, 21 tripsResults: It took longer to scan between greater distances
What were the results to Finke and Pinker's (1982)? Pts judged whether arrow points to dots previously seenResults: Longer reaction time when greater distances btwn arrows and dot
We move closer to small animals than to large animals. This is an example of what?Mental-walk task
: patient ignores objects in one half of visual field in perception and imagery.Unilateral neglect
What are the differences between perception and imagery?Perception is automatic and stable. Imagery requires effort and is fragile
: mental presentation of the environment that surrounds us. Ex: neighborhoods, cities, countries, etcCognitive map
: our thoughts about spatial issues, cognitive maps, remembering the world, how we navigate, keeping track of objects in a spatial array.Spatial Cognition
: the relationship among locations that you directly acquire by learning a map or by repeatedly exploring an environmentSurvey Knowledge
In Thorndyke's (1981) experiment, Ps studied map of hypothetical region until they could reproduce it; then estimated the distance between specified pairs of cities. What were the results?The # of intervening cities had a clear-cut influence on estimates, "cluttered" routes seemed longer, roads w/complex turns seemed longer than straight roads
: semantic factors influence distance estimates for specific locations. E.g., campus & off campus buildingsSemantic categories
Hirtle and Mascolo (1986) had Pts learn hypothetical map of a town and then estimate the distance between pairs of locations. What were the results? People tended to shift each location closer to other sites that belonged to the same semantic cluster
: general tendency to provide shorter estimates when traveling to a landmark, rather than a non-landmarkLandmark Effect
Distance from Detroit to Toledo feels longer than the distance from Toledo to Detroit. This is an example of?The Landmark Effect
: we remember tilted geographic structure as being either more vertical or more horizontal than it really is.Rotation Heuristic
: we remember geographic structures as being arranged in a straighter line than they really areAlignment Heuristic
In Tversky's (1981) experiment, Pts were presented w/pairs of cities and asked "which city is north (or east) of the other?" What were the results?Results: Many students showed a consistent tendency to use the alignment heuristic especially for northern cities in North America compared to Southern cities in Europe

Section 2

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