Chapter 10 Ointments, Creams, and Gels (real)

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Section 1

Question Answer
topical dermatologicaldesigned to deliver drug into the skin in treating dermal disorders, with the skin as the target organ
transdermal designed to deliver drugs through the skin (percutaneous absorption) to the general cir- culation for systemic effects, with the skin not being the target organ
Ointmentsare semisolid preparations in- tended for external application to the skin or mucous membranes
IncorporationThe components are mixed until a uniform preparation is attained
Fusion all or some of the com- ponents of an ointment are combined by be- ing melted together and cooled with constant stirring until congealed.
COMPENDIAL REQUIREMENTS FOR OINTMENTSmicrobial content, minimum fill, packaging, storage, and labeling

Section 2

Question Answer
Oleaginous Bases/Hydrocarbon basesOn application to the skin, they have an emollient effect, protect against the escape of moisture, are effective as occlusive dress- ings, can remain on the skin for long periods without drying out, and because of their im- miscibility with water, are difficult to wash off.
Absorption Bases(a) those that permit the incorporation of aqueous so- lutions resulting in the formation of water- in-oil (W/O) emulsions and (b) those that are W/O emul- sions (syn: emulsion bases) that permit the incorporation of additional quantities of aqueous solutions
Aquaphor and Aquabasecapacity to absorb up to three times their weight in water and are useful to help incorporate a water-soluble drug,
Water-Removable Basesoil-in-water emul- sions commonly called creams. Because the ex- ternal phase of the emulsion is aqueous, they are easily washed from skin and are often called water-washable bases
Water-Soluble Basesdo not contain ole- aginous components. They are completely water washable and often referred to as greaseless.

Section 3

Question Answer
Creams are semisolid prepa- rations containing one or more medicinal agents dissolved or dispersed in either a water-in-oil (W/O) emulsion or an oil-in- water (O/W) emulsion
vanishing creamsoil-in-water emulsions con- taining large percentages of water and stearic acid or other oleaginous components
Gels/Jelliesare semisolid systems consisting of dispersions of small or large molecules in an aqueous liquid vehicle rendered jellylike by the addition of a gelling agent
Single-phase gelsare gels in which the macromolecules are uniformly distributed throughout a liquid with no apparent bound- aries between the dispersed macromolecules and the liquid.
Magma gel mass consisting of floc- cules of small distinct particles is termed a two-phase system
Pastessemisolid preparations intended for application to the skin. They generally contain a larger proportion of solid material (such as 25%) than ointments and therefore are stiffer.
Plasterssolid or semisolid adhesive masses spread on a backing of paper, fabric, moleskin, or plastic
Glycerogelatinsare plastic masses containing gelatin (15%), glycerin (40%), water (35%), and an added medicinal substance (10%), such as zinc oxide.

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