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Chapter 1 The Human Body- Orientation

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kklovee21's version from 2015-09-07 23:41

Chapter One

Question Answer
Anatomythe study of the structure of body parts and their relationships to one another
Three main sections of anatomyGross(Macroscopic), Microscopic, Developmental
Physiologythe study of the function of the body's structural machinery
Three subdivisions of Gross AnatomyRegional, Systemic, Surface
Regional anatomyall structures in one part of the body (such as the abdomen or leg)
Systemic anatomyanatomy of the body studied by system
Surface anatomystudy of internal structures as they relate to the overlying skin
Two subdivisions of Microscopic AnatomyCytology, Histology
Cytologystudy of the cell
Histologystudy of tissues (groups of similar cells)
The subdivision of Developmental anatomyEmbryology
Embryologystudy of developmental changes of the body before birth
The principle of Complementarityfunction always reflects structure, what a structure can do depends on its specific form
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Question Answer
Levels of Structure (six) in anatomyChemical, Cellular, Tissue, Organ, Organ system, Organismal
Chemicalatoms combined to form molecules
Cellularcells are made of molecules
Tissueconsists of similar types of cells
Organmade up of different types of tissues
Organ systemconsists of different organs that work closely together
Organismalmade up of the organ system
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Question Answer
superior (cranial)toward the head end or upper part of a structure or the body; above
inferior (caudal)away from the head end or toward the lower part of a structure or the body; below
anterior (ventral)toward or at the front of the body; in front of
posteriortoward or at the back of the body; behind
medialtoward or at the midline of the body on the inner side of
lateralaway from the midline of the body on the outer side of
intermediatebetween a more medial and more lateral structure
proximalcloser to the origin of the body part or the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk
distalfarther from the origin of a body part or the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk
superficial (external)toward or at the body surface
deep (internal)away from the body surface; more internal
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Question Answer
Axialhead, neck, and trunk
Appendicularappendages or limbs
Specific regional terminologywhat certain areas of the body are called
Nosenasal
Mouthoral
Neckcervical
Point of shoulderacromial
Armpitaxillary
Abdomenabdominal
Armbrachial
Front of elbowantecubital
Forearmantebrachial
Pelvispelvic
Wristcarpal
Thumbpollex
Palmpalmar
Fingersdigital
Genital regionpubic
Anterior kneepatellar
Legcrural
Ankletarsal
Toesdigital
Footpedal
Foreheadfrontal
Eyeorbital
Cheekbuccal
Chinmental
Breastbonesterna
Chestthoracic
Breastmammary
Navelumbilical
Hipcoxal
Groininguinal
Thighfemoral
Side of legfibular, or peroneal
Great toeHallux
Headcephalic
Handmanus
Earotic
Back of head or base of skullOccipital
Point of shoulderacromial
Spinal columnvertebral
Shoulder bladescapular
Armbrachial
Backdorsum or dorsal
Back of elbowolecranal
LoinLumbar
Between hipssacral
buttockgluteal
Region between the anus and external genitaliaPerineal
Thighfemoral
Back of kneepopliteal
Calfsural
Heelcalcaneal
Soleplantar
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Question Answer
Sagittal and medial body planesdivides the body into right and left parts
Midsagittalsagittal plane that lies on the midline
Frontal or coronaldivides the body into anterior and posterior parts
Transverse or horizontal (cross section)divides the body into superior and inferior parts
Oblique sectioncuts made diagonally
dorsal cavityprotects the nervous system, and is divided into tow subdivisions
Two subdivisions of the dorsal cavitycranial cavity, vertebral cavity
Cranial cavityis within the skull and encases the brain
Vertebral cavityruns within the vertebral column and encases the spinal cord
Ventral cavityhouses the internal organs (viscera), and is divided into tow subdivisions
Two subdivisions of the ventral cavitythoracic and abdominopelvic
Thoracic cavitysubdivided into three subdivisions
Three subdivisions of the thoracic cavitypleural cavities, the mediastinum, and the pericardial cavity
Pleural cavitieseach houses a lung
Mediastinumcontains the pericardial cavity, and surrounds the remaining thoracic organs
Pericardialencloses the heart
What separates the abdominopelvic cavity from the superior thoracic cavity?dome-shaped diaphragm
abdominal cavity containsthe stomach, intestines, spleen, liver, and other organs
pelvic cavity containslies within the pelvis and contains the bladder, reproductive organs, and rectum
Parietal serosa membranecovers the body walls
Visceral serosa membranecovers the internal organs
Serous fluidseparates the serosae
Oral and digestive membranesmouth and cavities of the digestive organs
Nasal membranelocated within and posterior to the nose
Orbital membranehouse the eyes
Middle ear membranecontain bones (ossicles) that transmit sound vibrations
Synovial membranejoint cavities
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Question Answer
Abdominopelvic Quadrantsright upper, left upper, right lower, left lower
Abdominopelvic regionsumbilical, epigastric, hypogastric, right and left iliac or inguinal, right and left lumbar, right and left hypochondriac
Right hypochondriac regionliver, gallbladder
Epigastric regionstomach
Left Hypochondriac regiondiaphragm
Right lumbar regionascending colon of the large intestine
Umbilical regionsmall intestine, transverse colon of large intestine
Left lumbar regiondescending colon of the large intestine
Right iliac (inguinal) regioncecum, appendix
Hypogastric (pubic) regionurinary bladder
Left iliac (inguinal) regioninitial part of sigmoid colon
memorize