Chap 8

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Question Answer
The chemical reactivity of the elements is largely determined bytheir valence electrons
All non-valence electrons in an atom arecore electrons
Effective nuclear charge (Zeff) isthe “positive charge” felt by an electron
Zeff on periodic table increasesup and right
Atomic radius isone-half the distance between the two nuclei in two adjacent metal atoms or in a diatomic molecule
atomic radius increasesleft, down
Ionic radius isthe radius of a cation or an anion
is always smaller than atom from which it is formedcation
is always larger than atom from which it is formedanion
metallic character increasesleft and down
Ionization energy isthe minimum energy (kJ/mol) required to remove an electron from a gaseous atom in its ground state
Ionization energy is alwaysan endothermic process
measure of the tendency of an atom to resist the loss of an electronIonization energy
The higher the ionization energy,the stronger the attraction between the nucleus and an electron
Electron affinity (EA) isthe negative of the energy change that occurs when an electron is accepted by an atom in the gaseous state to form an anion
EA is positive ifthe reaction is exothermic, EA is negative if the reaction is endothermic
Electron affinity (EA) is a measure ofthe tendency of an atom to gain an electron; it can viewed as the energy required to remove an electron from the anion
The more positive the electron affinity,the greater the tendency for the atom to gain an electron
Metals usually have lowionization energies, and nonmetals usually have high electron affinities
Diagonal relationships aresimilarities between pairs of elements in different groups and periods of the periodic table
Completely filled ns and np subshells. Highest ionization energy of all elements. No tendency to accept extra electronsgroup 8A elements
Noble gases are very stable becausetheir outer ns and np subshells are completely filled
Nonmetals (5A, 6A and 7A) tend to accept electrons untiltheir anions become isoelectronic with the noble gases that follow them
Metals of representative elements (1A, 2A and 3A) tend to lose electrons untiltheir cations become isoelectronic with the noble gases that precede them
Metallic oxides are usuallybasic. Most Nonmetal oxides are acidic. Other oxides are amphoteric
Amphoteric substances arethose that display both acidic and basic properties