Chap 3 Pharmaceutical Aids and Necessities Official Inorganic Bases

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Strong Ammonia Solution, NF XIII

Question Answer
Strong Ammonia SolutionAmmonium Hydroxide, Stronger Ammonia Water,Spirit of Hartshorn
– Clear, colorless liquid, exceedingly pungent.Physical Properties(Strong Ammonia Solution)
– Weak base (pH = 11.6, pKa = 9.2) – At red heat (450o – 500oC), NH3 produces nitrogen and hydrogen. – Possesses unshared pair of electrons, thereby serving as a ligand in forming soluble complex ions with many metal cations (Cu, Ag, Au, Zn, Cd, Cr, Ni, Co, Mn and Pt)Chemical Properties(Strong Ammonia Solution)
NH4+ + NaOH NH3↑ + H2O + Na+Official ID Test(Strong Ammonia Solution)
Ammonium salts are decomposed addition of an excess of 1 N sodium hydroxide
Haber ProcessNitrogen and hydrogen are mixed in volume proportions of 1–3 under high pressure (bet 100 and 1000 atm), passed through a promoted iron catalyst at a temp of 400o to 550oC.
AmmonolysisHgCl2 + NH3 Hg(NH3)Cl + HCl (Type of rxn?)
– Bronsted base – Used in the manufacture of HNO3 and NaHCO3Uses(Strong Ammonia Solution)

Calcium Hydroxide, USP XVIII

Question Answer
(Calcium Hydroxide)Slaked lime, lime water, hydrated lime, Milk of Lime
– White powder, alkaline and slightly bitter taste – Slightly soluble in H2O (1 g in 630 mL), very slightly soluble in boiling H2O (1 g in 1300 mL) – Solution: clear, colorlessPhysical properties(Calcium Hydroxide)
SlakingManufactured by careful addition of a limited amount of H2O to Lime (CaO).
– pH = 12.3, capable of neutralizing acidsChemical Properties(Calcium Hydroxide)
Ca2+ + (NH4)C2O4 Ca2C2O4↓ + 2NH4+(White precipitate)(Calcium Hydroxide)
– Fluid electrolyte (Ca2+) – Topical astringent and protective (Calamine lotion) – Antacid – Manufacture of calcium soap – The solution may be added to babies’ formulae for the purpose of preventing curdling of milk in the presence of acid gastric contents, thus promoting digestibility of the milk.Uses(Calcium Hydroxide)

Potassium Hydroxide, USP XVIII

Question Answer
(Potassium Hydroxide)Caustic Potash
Very deliquescent – Rapidly absorbs moisture and CO2 from the air – Strong base, have a similar property with NaOHChemical Properties(Potassium Hydroxide)
– White or nearly white fused masses, small pellets, flakes, sticksPhysical Properties(Potassium Hydroxide)
– Strongly alkaline to litmus paper, phenolphathalein – Corresponds with that of K.Official ID Tests(Potassium Hydroxide)
– Caution: It rapidly destroys tissues (escharotic properties) – Used to make soapUses(Potassium Hydroxide)

Sodium Carbonate, USP XVIII

Question Answer
(Sodium Carbonate) Monohydrated Sodium Carbonate
– White, orthorhombic, crystalline or granular powder – Odorless, strong alkaline taste – Efflorescent (at >50oC)Physical Properties(Sodium Carbonate)
– Hydrolysis – HydrationChemical Properties(Sodium Carbonate)
Solvay Ammonia- Soda ProcessMethod of Manufacture(Sodium Carbonate)
Na2CO3 (anhydrous) soda ash
Na2CO3.10H2O sal soda, washing soda, soda crystals
Na2CO3.NaHCO3.2H2O sodium sesquicarbonate or urao or trona
effervesce with acids, evolving a colorless gas when passed into calcium hydroxide TS, produces a white precipitate immediately.CO32- & HCO31-(Sodium Carbonate)
Colored redSodium Carbonate + phenolphthalein
unchanged or is only slightly coloredHCO31- + phenolphthalein
– Electrolytes – Antacid – Systemic alkalizer (sodium bicarbonate) Uses(Sodium Carbonate)
– By absorption (following neutralization of the gastric acid contents), from the GIT, they enter the blood and raise the level of the alkaline reserve. – Having raised the alkaline reserve the body acts to rid itself of the alkalinity, and excretes the excess alkali renally, thus throwing the burden to the excess kidney.Systemic Alkalizer(Sodium Carbonate)

Sodium Hydroxide, USP XVIII

Question Answer
(Sodium Hydroxide)Caustic Soda, Soda Lye
– Practically identical to those of KOH – Very deliquescent – Primary difference: contains nmt 3.0% Na2CO3 – Should not be stored in glass-stoppered containersPhysical Properties(Sodium Hydroxide)
– Basic properties – Reaction with salts – Reaction with metals (Zn, Al) – Reaction with non-metals (B, Si, P, Cl) – Used to manufacture soapChemical Properties(Sodium Hydroxide)
Corresponds to the tests for SodiumOfficial ID Tests(Sodium Hydroxide)
– Caustic: damages tissue – Alkalinizing agent to form soluble sodium salts of various drugs – Saponifying agentUses(Sodium Hydroxide)

Soda Lime, USP XVIII

Question Answer
Soda LimeCalx Sodica
Mixture of Ca(OH)2 and NaOH or KOH or both.Soda Lime:Calx Sodica
USP states that it may contain an indicator which will not react with the common anesthetic gases, and which will change color when the absorption capacity of the soda lime for CO2 is exhausted.Soda Lime:USP
– Metabolism test – Anesthesia – Oxygen therapySoda Lime: Uses