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Challenges 2

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djamesmck57's version from 2016-10-15 04:02

Section 1

Question Answer
48. ICCThe International Criminal Court is an intergovernmental organization established in 2002 that has the jurisdiction to prosecute individuals for the international crimes of genocide, crimes against humanity, and war crimes. Receives criticism for being ineffective, illegitimate, having political bias, and lacking impartiality.
UNAn intergovernmental organization established in 1945 to replace the League of Nations after WWII whose goal is to prevent another such conflict. It is composed of 193 member states and they are involved with peacekeeping (sending troops) and peace operations (troops aren’t sent). Its entities include the World Bank, IMF, and agencies such as UNESCO, UNICEF, WHO, etc. a. General Assembly – deliberative (discussion) and policymaking body. All 193 states are “equally” represented; essentially it is a “parliament of nations.” It is an important indicator of world opinion. A 2/3 majority is needed for major issues b. Security Council – decides resolutions, maintains peace and security, and investigates situations threatening peace. There are 5 permanent members with veto power (P5 – US, Russia, China, France, UK) and 10 rotating that serve 2-year terms.
50. Bretton WoodsSystem of monetary management that established rules for commercial/financial relations among world’s industrial states; governs monetary relations
51. John Maynard KeynesA British economist who drafted much of the Bretton Woods plan. He called it “the exact opposite of the gold standard,” saying the negotiated monetary system would be whatever the controlling nations wished to make of it. It gave the US currency (linked to gold) the dominant position in the world economy and allowed the US to run a trade deficit without devaluing. The US also gained the most voting rights (therefore veto power) since they contributed the most money
52. Doha RoundTrade-negotiation round whose objective is to lower trade barriers and thus facilitate increased global trade
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Section 2

Question Answer
65. SanctionsAn economic instrument employed by one or more international actors against another to influence the foreign/security policy behavior of that entity. Don’t work: “rally around the flag” effect, hard to ensure total compliance, conceding usually due to other factors, impossible to detect direct impact, adopt countermeasures. Work: effective 30-40% of cases, “smart sanctions” (target political elites), need specific objective, economic/political conditions must be susceptible to pressure, “7 Recommendations.” Examples: South Africa, Iraq, Iran*
66. UNSCOM (1991)/UNMOVIC (1999)United Nations Special Commission was an inspection regime created to ensure Iraq’s compliance with policies concerning Iraqi production and use of WMD’s after Gulf War. Pulled out in 1998 followed by US/UK airstrikes (Operation Desert Fox) due to Saddam’s failure to provide access and lack of cooperation. New resolution: United Nations Monitoring, Verification & Inspection Committee under Hans Blix. Only gained access in 2003 due to high tensions after 9/11 but never found WMD’s although they were pulled out soon after before US invasion  sanctions as precursor to war
67. Hassan RouhaniThe new 2013 president of Iran that is the first leader to speak directly to a US president since 1979, making it hopeful that a deal can possibly be reached over Iran’s controversial nuclear program
Iran-Libya Sanctions Act (1996)The US has been sanctioning Iran since 1979 and this act was the result of running out of things to sanction. The act imposed economic sanctions on firms doing business with Iran and Libya. This caused serious controversy because the EU complained that the US has no legal sway over non-American company’s affairs. The Waiver Clause was so that the President could waiver certain fines if he chooses (to appease some of these complaints).
69. European UnionA union of 28 member states that “pool” their sovereignty. It began in 1958 as purely economic but in 1993 it evolved into a political union as well that bases everything on the rule of law (everything founded on treaties voluntarily/democratically agreed on by all members). It has the biggest economy and largest trading bloc in the world, a single currency (euro), a single frontier-less space, and CFSP & CSDP (never wanted to go to war again  solve conflicts internally). There is a Council, Commission, Parliament, Court of Justice, Monetary Union, and External Action Service (new, unique)
70. Eurozone CrisisFinancial crisis beginning in 2010 that has shown the difficulty to having a single currency containing member states whose economies are all so different. Highlights the problem that there is no central political authority to dictate monetary policy
71. CSDPCommon Security & Defense Policy started in 1998 whose focus today is on Africa. However, this body has many challenges especially from an absence of leadership. There is a lack of strategic vision, the combination of different strategic cultures, different relations with US and NATO, etc.
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