Ch7 ps

eshapeesha's version from 2015-11-08 23:54


Question Answer
collective action problemindividuals are unwilling to engage in particular activity bc of their rational belief that their individual actions have to effect, but then they suffer the consequences of inaction
more fragmented parties usually results in ___, whereas few parties results in ___fragmented --> consensual to people but unproductive, few parties are majoritarian
single member districtelectoral system in which each geographic district elects a single rep to legislature
plurality systemcandidate w greatest percentge wins, aka fptp
majoritariancndidate needs 51% and up to win
proportional representationelectoral system in which seats are apportioed on a proportional basis, giving each party the share of seats that matches its share of the total vote. this can create a coalition gov
closed list prop repvoters vote for candidate, candidate w most votes in the party get seats the party wins
mixed systemcombined smd and prop rep. ex-germany
semipresidentialismtwo executives, the pm and president. president directly elected and they name pm and cabinet
cohabitationpres and majority of members of parliament come from diff pol parties
bloked votepm refuses to recognize amendements from floor of leg
french system characteristicslarge protests are frequent, unusually strong and independent bureaucracy, national assembly has limited ability to amend laws
pm in russia problemserves at the pleasure of the president
pres power russia, parties like whatdecress cant be challenged in court, can name and dismiss rep who choose other reps, weak and fragmented party system
common lawjudges base decisions on written law and past cases
stare decisispractice of accepting precedent of previous similar cases
code lawjudges follow law only
brazilian court dealiohigher courts improve in legitimacy and capacity, lower courts despised bc pretrial process is unfair and takes longer than most sentences
unitary systemscentral gov has sole constitutional sovereignty and power
federalist systemsshare power
symmetricalsubgovs have same rights and relations to central govs
asymmetricaldiff subnational govs have distinct rights
pros of smdvoters have strong identification w rep, reps have incentives to est local offices, efficiency and moderation
how have parties changedlower voter turn out, voter volatility, single issue voting, more parties, focus on candidates and not parties possibly bc of broad info given by media
realignmentvoter preference has changed and parties havent kept up
cartel partiesparties now just function to please the media
dominant party systemparty systems in which multiple parties exist but the same one wins every election and governs continuously
two party system2 parties are able to garner enough votes to win an election, though more may compete
two and a half party system2 large parties win the most votes, but typically neither gains a majority
multiparty systemmore than 2 parties could potentially win a national election and govern
institutionalistsbroader institutional setting greatly shapes number and strength of parties.pol leaders will create parties that will help them gain power.
duverger's lawsmd electoral systems will produce 2 major parties, pr encourages multiparty systems
pros and cons of multiparty systemgive formal voice to diverse opinions but result in a coalition gov
civil societysphere of organized citizen activity between the state and the individual family
interest group categorieslabor, business, agricuture. business matters most
interest group pluralisminterest group system in which many groups exist to represent particular interests and the government remains officially neutral among them
neocorporatismcorporatism that evolves historically and voluntarily rather than being mandated by the state
peak associationsorganizations that bring together interest groups in a particular sector to influence and negotiate agreements with the state
social movementspart of civil society, loose organizational structure, rep people who perceive themselves to be outside formal institutions, seek major socioecon/pol change, collective action
ngoizationsocial movements become more institutionalized and eventually bcome ngos developing imperatives to find funding and hire professional staff
uk gov2 party, smd, pluralist interest group system
parties in the uk, problems assoc liberal, conservative, labor.
in the labor party how is the leader selectedelected by weighing the votes of paid up individual members, union members, party mps. seats chosen by local constituencies
how do uk interet groups get poweraccess to cabinet, important players are centralized, uk has only 1 group each for business and labor.
brazil, how is change enactedpresident da silva of the workers party, does good things. them rousseff fucks it up w stagnant econ, massive corruption, and misplaced priorities. pr system--> focus on local issues not party--> no coherent legislation
how does brazil improvelegislators start voting as a block, change econ policy, gov makes ruels to avoid switching parties, independent unions, participatory budgeting system
participatory budgeting systemcitizens in neighborhoods meet to set their priorities for annual gov budget and elect reps to produce proposals
proof for duvergers lawmechanical effect- plurality rule is biased against smaller parties, denying small parties any rep; psychological effect- voters vote strategically for the largest parties only to avoid wasting their vote.
expception to duvergers lawfederalism- when parties can win plurality/ majority at a regional level
smd consless rep of minority votes, apathy, low rates of participation
pros/cons participatory stsemincludes minority opinion, greater number of parties--> fragmentation
collective actionexpending time or money toward a pol goal may be irrational
how to count partieslaasko and taagepera, sum of squared shares of all parties gives the enf= effective number of parties
governing potentialwhen a party has a realistic chance of winning an eletion
blackmail potentialwhen a party's existence affects the tactics of party competition and particularly when it alters the direction of competition (ex-bernie brings hillary left)
in a 2 party system what are parties like2 parties converge in center bc median curve
why is washington polarizedparties are unitary actors, parties want to win, if parties dont move then voters switch

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