cesar521's version from 2016-01-17 20:53


Question Answer
anterograde amnesiathe loss of memories from the point of injury or illness forward and cant form new memories
automatic encodingstrong emotional associations can lead to vivid and detailed “flashbulb” memories
consolidationalteration and the other changes that take place as a memory is forming
constructive processingmemories are literally “built,” or reconstructed, from the information stored away during encoding
curve of forgettingthis graph clearly shows that forgetting happens quickly within the first hour after learning the lists and then tapers off gradually.
declarative (explicit) memoryall the things that people can know; the facts and information that make up knowledge.
declarative memoryexplicit memory, memory for facts
distributed practicespacing out one’s study sessions
echoic memorythe brief memory of something a person has heard. the “what?” phenomenon.
eidetic imageryphotographic memory, the ability to access a visual sensory memory over a long period of time
elaborative rehearsalway of transferring information from stm into ltm by making that information meaningful in some way
encoding specificitythe tendency for memory of any kind of information to be improved if retrieval conditions are similar to the conditions under which the information was encoded ex. math test in math class
episodic memorymemories of what has happened to people each day, certain birthdays, anniversaries that were particularly special, childhood events
false-memory syndromerefers to the creation of inaccurate or false memories through the suggestion of others, often while the person is under hypnosis
flashbulb memoriesmemories of highly emotional events can often seem vivid and detailed, as if the person’s mind took a “flash picture” of the moment in time
george millerwanted to know how many numbers people memorize
hindsight biastendency of people to falsely believe that they would have accurately predicted an outcome without having been told about it in advance ex. knowing outcome of game
iconic memoryvisual sensory memory, and only lasts for a fraction of a second
infantile amnesiathe inability to retrieve memories from much before age 3.
information-processing modelfocuses on the way information is processed through different stages of memory
levels-of-processing modelfocuses on the depth of processing associated with specific information
long-term memory (ltm)the system into which all the information is placed to be kept more or less permanently
maintenance rehearsalsaying something they want to remember over and over
memoryan active system that receives information from the senses, puts that information into a usable form, organizes it as it stores it away, and then retrieves the information from storage
memory tracephysical change in the brain that occurs when a memory is formed
misinformation effectthe tendency of misleading information presented after an event to alter the memories of the event itself
nondeclarative memoryimplicit memory, memory for skills ex. tying shoes
parallel distributed processing (pdp) modelfocuses on simultaneous processing of information across multiple neural networks
primacy effectwords at the very beginning of the list tend to be remembered better than those in the middle of the list
proactive interferencethe tendency for older or previously learned material to interfere with the learning (and subsequent retrieval) of new material. ex. old cell phone number
recency effectit is usually attributed to the fact that the last word or two was just heard and is still in short-term memory for easy retrieval
repressiona type of psychologically motivated forgetting in which a person supposedly cannot remember a traumatic event
retrieval cuea stimulus for remembering ex. words, meanings, sounds
retroactive interferencewhen newer information interferes with the retrieval of older information
retrograde amnesiawhich is loss of memory from the point of injury backwards
selective attentionthe ability to focus on only one stimulus from among all sensory input
semantic memorymeanings of words, concepts, and terms as well as names of objects, math skills, and so on
semantic network modelassumes that information is stored in the brain in a connected fashion with concepts that are related to each other stored physically closer to each other than concepts that are not highly related
senile dementiaa mental disorder in which severe forgetfulness, mental confusion, and mood swings are the primary symptoms
sensory memorythe very first stage of memory, where raw information from the senses is held for a very brief period of time
serial position effectthings beginning of list and end of list easy to remember
short-term memory (stm)unlike sensory memory, short-term memories are held for up to 30 seconds or more.
state-dependent learningmemories formed during a particular physiological or psychological state will be easier to remember while in a similar state. for example, when you are fighting with someone, it’s much easier to remember all of the bad things that person has done than to remember the good times
working memorymore correctly thought of as an active system that processes the information present in short-term memory.