cesar521's version from 2016-01-17 20:52


Question Answer
applied behavior analysis (aba)the modern term for a form of behavior modification that uses both analysis of current behavior and behavioral techniques to address a socially relevant issue
behavior modificationrefers to the application of operant conditioning (and sometimes classical conditioning) to bring about such changes
classical conditioninglearning to draw forth an involuntary, reflex-like, response to a stimulus other than the original, natural stimulus that normally produces the response. ex. dog saliva
cognitive perspectiveorganism consciously expects something to occur
conditioned emotional responsesemotional responses that have become classically conditioned to occur in response to learned stimuli
conditioned stimulus (cs)a previously neutral stimulus, through repeated pairing with the unconditioned stimulus, begins to cause the same kind of involuntary response, learning has occurred
continuous reinforcementa reinforcer for each and every correct response
discriminative stimulusany stimulus that provides an organism with a cue for making a certain response in order to obtain reinforcement ex. red stoplight
edward tolmangestalt psychologist best-known experiments in learning involved teaching three groups of rats the same maze
fixed interval schedule of reinforcementa reinforcer is received after a certain, fixed interval of time has passed. ex. paycheck
fixed ratio schedule of reinforcementthe number of responses required to receive each reinforcer will always be the same number ex. punch cards food
higherorder conditioningwhen a strong conditioned stimulus is paired with a neutral stimulus.
instinctive drifttendency for an animal’s behavior to revert to genetically controlled patterns.
latent learningthe idea that learning could happen without reinforcement
law of effectif an action is followed by a pleasurable consequence, it will tend to be repeated
learning/performance distinctionlearning can take place without actual performance (a kind of latent learning), watching a model
martin seligmandogs shocked, did nothing
negative reinforcementremoval, escape, or avoidance of unpleasant stimulus
observational learningthe learning of new behavior through watching the actions of a model
operant conditioninglearning that applies to voluntary behavior
positive reinforcementreinforcement of a response by the addition or experience of a pleasurable consequence
primary reinforcea reinforcer such as a candy bar that fulfills a basic need like hunger
reflexan unlearned, involuntary response that is not under personal control or choice
reinforcementanything that, when following a response, causes that response to be more likely to happen again
secondary reinforcersuch as money
shapingsmall steps toward some ultimate goal are reinforced until the goal itself is reached ex. dog jump through a hoop
stimulus discriminationoccurs when an organism learns to respond to different stimuli in different ways.
stimulus generalizationthe tendency to respond to a stimulus that is similar to the original conditioned stimulus
unconditioned response (ucr)automatic and involuntary response to the unconditioned stimulus ex. dog saliva
unconditioned stimulus (ucs)unlearned ex. dog food
variable interval schedule of reinforcementwhere the interval of time after which the individual must respond in order to receive a reinforce ex. pop quizzes
variable ratio schedule of reinforcementone in which the number of responses changes from one trial to the next. ex. slot machine
vicarious conditioningto become classically conditioned by simply watching someone else respond to a stimulus
wolfgang köhlergestalt psychologist, chimp get banana from cage
A stimulus presented to a person or animal that decreases the probability of a particular response is known aspunishment by removal
What kind of reinforcement is used if Sally's parents give her $10 every time she accumulates six As on her tests?continuous reinforcement
The researcher responsible for discovering classical conditioning wasPavlov