cesar521's version from 2016-01-13 06:43


Question Answer
acetylcholine (ach) it is found at the synapses between neurons and muscle cells, stimulates the skeletal muscles to contract but actually slows contractions in the heart muscle.
afferent (sensory) neurona neuron that carries information from the senses to the central nervous system.
agonista chemical substance that mimics or enhances the effects of a neurotransmitter
amygdalabrain structure located near the hippocampus, responsible for fear responses and memory of fear.
antagonistschemical substances that block or reduce a cell’s response to the action of other chemicals or neurotransmitters.
association areasareas within each lobe of the cortex responsible for the coordination and interpretation of information, as well as higher mental processing.
autonomic nervous system (ans)division of the pns consisting of nerves that control all of the involuntary muscles, organs, and glands.
axona fiber attached to the soma, and its job is to carry messages out to other cells.
axon terminalsresponsible for communicating with other nerve cells.
biological psychology, or behavioral neurosciencethe branch of neuroscience that focuses on the biological bases of psychological processes, behavior, and learning.
broca’s aphasiacondition resulting from damage to broca’s area, causing the affected person to be unable to speak fluently, to mispronounce words, and to speak haltingly.
central nervous system (cns)composed of the brain and the spinal cord
cerebellum part of the lower brain located behind the pons that controls and coordinates involuntary, rapid, fine motor movement, and may have some cognitive functions.
cerebral hemispheres the two sections of the cortex on the left and right sides of the brain.
cerebrum the upper part of the brain consisting of the two hemispheres and the structures that connect them.
computed tomography (ct) brain-imaging method using computer-controlled x-rays of the brain.
corpus callosum thick band of neurons that connects the right and left cerebral hemispheres.
cortex outermost covering of the brain consisting of densely packed neurons, responsible for higher thought processes and interpretation of sensory input.
dendritesthe parts of the neuron that receive messages from other cells and are attached to the cell body
diffusionthe process of ions moving from areas of high concentration to areas of low concentration
dopamine (da)a neurotransmitter found in the brain
efferent (motor) neurona neuron that carries messages from the central nervous system to the muscles of the body.
electrostatic pressure the relative electrical charges when the ions are at rest.
endocrine glandsglands that secrete chemicals called hormones directly into the bloodstream.
endorphinspain-controlling chemicals in the body.
enzymatic degradationprocess by which the structure of a neurotransmitter is altered so it can no longer act on a receptor.
excitatory synapse synapse at which a neurotransmitter causes the receiving cell to fire.
frontal lobesareas of the brain located in the front and top, responsible for higher mental processes and decision making as well as the production of fluent speech.
functional magnetic resonance imaging (fmri) mri-based brain-imaging method that allows for functional examination of brain areas through changes in brain oxygenation.
gaba-aminobutyric acid (gaba)the most common neurotransmitter producing inhibition in the brain, can help to calm anxiety
glia cellsserve as a sort of structure on which the neurons develop and work and that hold the neurons in place.
glutamatenervous system’s major excitatory neurotransmitter is
gonadssex glands; secrete hormones that regulate sexual development and behavior as well as reproduction.
hippocampuscurved structure located within each temporal lobe, responsible for the formation of long-term declarative memories.
hormoneschemicals released into the bloodstream by endocrine glands.
hypothalamussmall structure in the brain located below the thalamus and directly above the pituitary gland, responsible for motivational behavior such as sleep, hunger, thirst, and sex.
inhibitory synapsesynapse at which a neurotransmitter causes the receiving cell to stop firing.
ionscharged particles
limbic systema group of several brain structures located primarily under the cortex and involved in learning, emotion, memory, and motivation.
magnetic resonance imaging (mri) brain-imaging method using radio waves and magnetic fields of the body to produce detailed images of the brain.
medullathe first large swelling at the top of the spinal cord, forming the lowest part of the brain, which is responsible for life-sustaining functions such as breathing, swallowing, and heart rate.
milk letdown reflexinvolves contraction of the mammary gland cells to release milk for the nursing infant
motor cortex rear section of the frontal lobe, responsible for sending motor commands to the muscles of the somatic nervous system.
motor pathwaynerves coming from the cns to the voluntary muscles, consisting of efferent neurons.
nervesbundle of axon
nervous systema network of cells that carries information to and from all parts of the body.
neuropeptides a group of substances known as can serve as neurotransmitters, hormones, or influence the action of other neurotransmitters
neuroplasticitythe ability within the brain to constantly change both the structure and function of many cells in response to experience or trauma.
occipital lobesection of the brain located at the rear and bottom of each cerebral hemisphere containing the primary visual centers of the brain.
olfactory bulbstwo bulb-like projections of the brain located just above the sinus cavity and just below the frontal lobes that receive information from the olfactory receptor cells.
oligodendrocytesa type of glial cell that produces myelin for the neurons in the brain and spinal cord (the central nervous system)
oxytocinhormone released by the posterior pituitary gland that is involved in reproductive and parental behaviors.
pancreas endocrine gland; controls the levels of sugar in the blood.
parasympathetic division (eat-drink-and-rest system)part of the ans that restores the body to normal functioning after arousal and is responsible for the day-to-day functioning of the organs and glands..
parietal lobes sections of the brain located at the top and back of each cerebral hemisphere containing the centers for touch, temperature, and body position.
peripheral nervous system (pns)all nerves and neurons that are not contained in the brain and spinal cord but that run through the body itself.
pineal glandendocrine gland located near the base of the cerebrum; secretes melatonin.
pituitary glandgland located in the brain that secretes human growth hormone and influences all other hormone-secreting glands (also known as the master gland).
pons the larger swelling above the medulla that connects the top of the brain to the bottom and that plays a part in sleep, dreaming, left-right body coordination, and arousal.
positron emission tomography (pet) brain-imaging method in which a radioactive sugar is injected into the subject and a computer compiles a color-coded image of the activity of the brain.
reflex arc the connection of the afferent neurons to the interneurons to the efferent neurons, resulting in a reflex action.
reticular formation (rf) an area of neurons running through the middle of the medulla and the pons and slightly beyond that is responsible for general attention, alertness, and arousal.
reuptake process by which neurotransmitters are taken back into the synaptic vesicles.
schwann cellsa type of glial cell that produces myelin for the neurons of the body (the peripheral nervous system
semipermeablethis means some substances that are outside the cell can enter through tiny protein openings
sensory pathway nerves coming from the sensory organs to the cns consisting of afferent neurons.
serotonina neurotransmitter originating in the lower part of the brain that can have either an excitatory or inhibitory effect
somacell body, which is the part of the cell that contains the nucleus and keeps the entire cell alive and functioning.
somatic nervous system division of the pns consisting of nerves that carry information from the senses to the cns and from the cns to the voluntary muscles of the body.
somatosensory cortex area of cortex at the front of the parietal lobes responsible for processing information from the skin and internal body receptors for touch, temperature, and body position.
spatial neglectcondition produced most often by damage to the parietal lobe association areas of the right hemisphere, resulting in an inability to recognize objects or body parts in the left visual field.
spinal cord a long bundle of neurons that carries messages between the body and the brain and is responsible for very fast, lifesaving reflexes.
ssrissome of the drugs used to treat depression
stem cells special cells found in all the tissues of the body that are capable of becoming other cell types when those cells need to be replaced due to damage or wear and tear.
sympathetic division (fight-or-flight system) part of the ans that is responsible for reacting to stressful events and bodily arousal.
synaptic vesiclessaclike structures found inside the synaptic knob containing chemicals
temporal lobes areas of the cortex located along the side of the brain, starting just behind the temples, containing the neurons responsible for the sense of hearing and meaningful speech.
thalamus part of the limbic system located in the center of the brain, this structure relays sensory information from the lower part of the brain to the proper areas of the cortex and processes some sensory information before sending it to its proper area.
thyroid gland endocrine gland found in the neck; regulates metabolism.
vasopressin the hormone that controls levels of water in our body
wernicke’s aphasia condition resulting from damage to wernicke’s area, causing the affected person to be unable to understand or produce meaningful language.