Ch. 8 Radiation Protection Equipment

kkaitlyn96's version from 2017-01-30 22:42

Section 1

Question Answer
What makes radiation ionizing? and what are the two groups?When it reacts with matter; Particulate and electromagnetic
Particulate ionizing radiationParticles of a substance/ material
Example of Particulate ionizing radiationSubatomic Particles; neutrons, protons, high energy electrons
Alpha Particles containTwo protons, two neutrons= helium
Alpha Particles are emitted fromthe nucleus of a heavy radioactive atom
Alpha Particles have a ___ masshigh
Alpha Particles have a ___ chargepositive
Beta Particles are identical toxrays and gamma rays except for their origin
Beta Particles are emitted fromthe nuclei of radioactive material
Beta Particles have a ___ masslow
Beta Particles have a ___ chargenegative
___ Particles can travel the farthestBeta

Section 2

Question Answer
Electromagnetic ionizing radiationx rays and gamma rays
gamma raysemitted from the nuclei of radioactive material
xrays and gamma rays cause ionization due tophotoelectric absorption and compton's scattering
Photons in xrays and gamma rays have no _________ and ___mass, charge
Photons in xrays and gamma rays travel at what speed?Speed of light, 3x10^8

Section 3

Question Answer
Clarence DallyFirst death due to xrays in 1904
Biological Effects classified as either ___ or ___Somatic or Genetic
Somatic Effects Happens within the body of the person xrayed
Genetic EffectsHappens in future generations
What are the units of radiation?C/kg, gray, and sievert
C/kg measuresexposure/ air
Gray measuresPatient dose
Sievert measuresBiological dose (our dose)

Section 4

Question Answer
Absorbed doseamount of energy/ dose in any material
1 gray =_________ joule/kg1
Unit for kermagray (kerma= gray)
Kermakinetic energy released in matter
Air KermaAmount of energy released per unit of mass in air = c/kg
Integral dosetotal amount of energy imparted into matter (total radiation given for a certain technical factor
Equivalent doseAverage dose to a certain organ
How can radiation react with a cell?kill it, change it, or do nothing
Equivalent dose equationDx Wr w= 20 for alpha w=1 for beta
Effective dose equationDx Wr x Wt

Section 5

Question Answer
Collective Effective doseamount of radiation exposure, average effective dose x # exposed
Activity what is it?; what is it measured in?quantity of radioactive material; becquerel
1 becquerel= _________ disintegrations per second1
Dosimeterdetects and measures radiation
Geiger Muller Survey InstrumentField survey, detects radiation but not how much, gas inside, detects beta particles, electrical charge with ions
Scintillation Detection DeviceField survey, Uses light, coverts into electrical signal
Ionization Chamber- Cutie PieField survey, detects primary and secondary radiation (xray), air inside, electrical charge with ions

Section 6

Question Answer
Personal Monitoring Devices Measures quantity of exposure to individuals
Film badgeFilters darken, accurate and sensitive, don't detect low energy photons
Thermoluminescent DosimeterCrystals, heat chip, kept 3-6 months, not sensitive to heat change
Optically Stimulated Luminescence most common, alumium oxide, glows, very accurate and expensive
Pocket DosimeterAir inside, cheap, one time use, immediate