Ch. 6 terms

sami92's version from 2017-07-17 16:43

Section 1

Question Answer
Information collected and stored in the brain that is generally retrievable for later use.Memory
The process through which information enters our memory system.Encoding
Process of preserving information for possible recollection in the future.Storage
Process of accessing information encoded and stored in memory.Retreival
A stage of memory that captures near-exact copies of vast amounts of sensory stimuli for a very brief period of timeSensory Memory
A stage of memeory that temporrarily maintains and processes a limited amount of informationShort-Term Memory
A stage of memory with essentially unlimited capacity that stores enduring information about facts and expierences.Long-Term Memory
Visual impressions that are photograph-like in their accuracy but dissolve in less than a second; a form of sensory memory.Iconic Memory
Exact copies of the sounds we hear ; a form of sensory memory.Echoic Memory

Section 2

Question Answer
Grouping numbers, letters, or other items into meaningful subsets as a strategy for increasing the quantity of information that can be maintained in short- term memory.Chunking
The Active processing of information in short-term memory; the maintenance and manipulation of information in the memory system.Working Memory
A type of memory you are aware of having and can consciously express in words or declare, including memories of facts and expierences.Exlpicit Memory
The memory of information theoretically available to anyone, which pertains to general facts about the world; a type of explicit emmeory.Semantic Memory
The record of memorable experiences or episodes including when and where an experience occurred; a type of explicit memoryEpisodic Memory
A detailed account of circumstances surrounding an emotionally significant or shocking, sometimes historic, event.Flashbulb Memory
A memory of something you know or know how to do, but that might be automatic or unconscious; this type of memory is often difficult to brin to awareness and expressImplicit Memory
The unconscious memory of how to carry out a variety of skills and activities; a type of implicit memory.Procedural Memory
Technique to improve memory.Mnemonic
The encoding and storage of information with conscious effort, or awarenessEffortful Processing
Technique of repeating information to be remembered, increasing the length of time it can be held in short- term memory.Maintenance Rehearsal
Method of connecting incoming information to knowledge in long-term memory; a deep level of encodingElaborative Rehearsal

Section 3

Question Answer
Studying for long periods of time without breaksMassed Practice
Spreading out study sessions over time with breaks in betweenDistributed Practice
Stimuli that help in the retrieval of stored information that is difficult to accessRetrieval Cues
Stimulation of memories as a result of retrieval cues in the environment.Priming
The process of retrieving information held in long- term memory without the help of explicit retrieval cues.Recall
The process of matching incoming data to information stored in long- term memory.Recognition
The ability to recall items in a list depends on where they are in the series.Serial Position Effect
The tendency to remember items at the beginning of a listPrimacy Effect
The tendency to remember items at the end of a list.Recency Effect
Memories are more easily recalled when the context and cues at the time of encoding are similar to those at the time of retrieval.Encoding Specificity Principle
Material learned previously is acquired more quickly in subsequent exposuresRelearning
Tendency for information learned in the past to interfere with the retrieval of new material.Proactive Interference
Tendency for recently learned information to interfere with the retrieval of things learned in the past.Retroacitve Interference

Section 4

Question Answer
Tendency for new and misleading information obtained after an incident to distort one's memory of itMisinformaiton
Recollections of an event that never occured, hwihc are expressed wiht emotions and confidence and include detailsRich False Memories
A type of memory loss; an inability to create new memories following damage or injury to the brain.Anterograde Amnesia
Type of memory loss; and inablility to access memories formed prior to damage or injury to the brain, or difficulty retrieving them.Retrograde Amnesia
The location where memories are etched in the brain via physiological changes.Memory Trace
The increased efficiency of neural communication over time, resulting in learning and the information of memories. Long- Term Potentiation