Ch. 5 terms

sami92's version from 2017-07-16 22:06

Section 1

Question Answer
relatively enduring change in behavior or thinking that results from expierencesLearning
Basic form of learning evident when an organism doesn't respond as strongly or as often to an event following multiple exposures to it.Habituation
An event or occurrence that generally leads to a response Stimulus
Learning by watching and imitating other people. Monkey See Monkey DoObservational Learning
Stimulus that dosen't cause a relevant automatic or reflexive responseNeutral Stimulus
Learning process in which two stimuli become associated with eachother; when originally neutral stimulus is conditioned to elicit an involuntary resonseClassical Conditioning
A stimulus that automatically triggers an involuntary response without any learning needed. Onions and tears.Unconditioned Stimulus
A reflexive involuntary response to an in conditioned stimulus. Jerking away form a hot stove.Unconditioned Response
A previously neutral stimuls that an organism leans to associate with and unconditioned stimulusConditioned Stimulus
A learned response to a conditioned Stimulus. No to touch red hot stove.Conditioned Response
The Initial Learning phase in both classical and operant conditioningAcquisition

Section 2

Question Answer
The tendency for stimuli similar to the conditioned stimulus to elicit the conditioned responseStimulus Generalization
The ability to differentiate between a conditioned stimulus and other stimuli sufficiently different from it. Difference between twinsStimulus Discrimination
Process by which the Conditioned response decreases after repeated exposure to the conditioned stimulus in the absence of the unconditioned stimuli; in operant conditioning the disappearance of a learned behavior through the removal of its reinforcerExtinction
In Classical Conditioning, the reappearance of the conditioned response following its extinction; occurs in response to the conditioned stimulus after a period of rest. Remembering the taste of watermelon in the summer only. Spontaneous Recovery
With repeated pairings of a conditioned stimulus and a neutral stimulus, the second neutral stimulus becomes a conditioned stimulus as well.Higher Order Conditioning
Form of classical conditioning that occurs when an organism learns to associate the taste of a particular food or drink with illness. Chicken soup and Gatorade.Conditioned Taste Aversion
The Degree to which a trait or behavior helps and organism survive.Adaptive Value
Tendency for animals to be predisposed or inclined to form associations. Momma bear protecting cub form humansBiological Preparedness
An emotional reaction acquired through classical conditioning process by which an emotional reaction becomes associated with a previously neutral stimulus. Taking away blankie.Conditioned Emotional Response

Section 3

Question Answer
Learning that occurs when voluntary actions become associated with their consequences.Operant Conditioning
Thorndike's principle stating that behaviors are more likely to be repeated when followed by pleasurable outcomes, and those followed by something unpleasant are less likely to be repeated.Doing chores gets you more tv time.Law of Effect
Consequences, such as events or objects, that increase the liklihood of a behavior reoccurrring.Reinfrocers
Process by which an organism learns to associate a voluntary behavior with it consequence. Staying out past curfew no car for a monthReinforcement
Scientific study of observable behaviorBehaviorism
The use of reinforcers to guide behavior to the acquisition of a desired, complex behavior.Shaping
A method fo shaping that uses reinforcers to condition a series of small steps that gradually approach the target behavior.Successive Approximations
Tendency for animals to revert to instinctual behaviors after a behavior pattern had been learnedInstinctive Drift
Process by which pleasant reinforcers are added or presented following the targeted behavior, increasing the likelihood of it occurring again.Positive Reinforcement

Section 4

Question Answer
The removal of an unpleasant stimulus following a target behavior, which increases the liklihood of it occurring againNegative Reinforcement
A reinforcer that satisfies a biological need, such as food, water, physical contact; innate behaviorPrimary Reinforcer
Reinforcers that don't satisfy biological needs but often gain their power through their association with primary reinforcers.Secondary Reinforcer
A schedule of reinforcement in which every target behavior is reinforcedContinuous Reinforcement
Tendency for behaviors acquired through intermittent reinforcement to be more resisitant to extinction than those acquired through continuous reinforcementPartial Reinforcement Effect
A schedule of reinforcement in which target behaviors are reinforced intermittently, not continuously.Partial Reinforcement
A schedule in which the subject must exhibit a predetermined number of desired behaviors before a reinforcer is givenFixed-Ratio Sched
A schedule in which the number of desired responses or behaviors that must occur before a reinforcer is given changes across trials and is based on an average amount of responses to e reinforced.Variable-Ratio Schedule
A schedule in which the reinforcer comes after a preestablished interval of time goes by, the response or behavior is only reinforced after the given interal is over. getting put in time outFixed- interval schedule
A schedule in which the reinforcer comes after an interval of time goes by, but the length of the interval changes from trial to trial. Time outVariable- interval schedule
Application of a consequence that decreases the liklihood of a behavior reoccurring.Punishmen

Section 5

Question Answer
The additionof something unpleasant following an unwanted behavior, with the intention of decreasing that behaviorPositive Punishment
The removal of something undesirable following an unwanted behavior, wiht the intention of decreasing that behavior.Negative Punishment
The Individual or character whose behavior is being imitatedModel
Learning that occurs as a result of watching the behavior of othersObservational learning
Actions that are kind, generous, and benefit others. Working at a soup kitchenProsocial Behaviors
Mental image of the layout of a physical spaceCognitive map
Learning that occurs without awareness and reguardless of reinforcement, and is not evident until neededLatent learning