Ch 27 and 28 Bio 102 1st Exam

michelleburkee2's version from 2016-02-18 09:11

Section 1

Question Answer
competitionharms both species
predationbenefits the predator but harms the prey
parasitismbenefits parasite but harms the host
mutualismbenefits both species
can two species occupy the same niche in a community?no. each species occupies a unique ecological niche
nichephysical home or habitat,type of nutrients it needs, role species performs within an ecosystem
competitive exclusion principleif two species occupy the same niche with limited resources, one will outcompete the other
resource partitioningreduction of interspecies competition by minimizing overlap of partially shared niche and thus allow sharing of resources
which succession starts from scratch?primary succession
which succession starts from some "seeds left behind"secondary succession
how long does primary succession take?thousands of years
how long does secondary succession take?10s to 100s of years
climax communitiesrelatively stable communities. ecological niches that allow species to coexist
what has more types of community interactions and more species: climax communities or pioneer speciesclimax communitites
what creates earth's biome?%climax communities%
biomesextensive areas of characteristic climax plant communities. include deserts, grasslands, and forests.

Section 2

Question Answer
predators areherbivores and carnivores
predators tend to be ____ adundant than their preyless
camoflaugepredators and prey have evolved colors patterns and shapes that resemble their surroundings
warning colorationbright colors often warn of danger
chemical warfareuse toxins for attack and defense.
do parasites kill the host?not usually
keystone speciesa species that plays a major role in determining community structure. Identified by the impact of removal from community
trophic cascadea series of events that follows the removal of a keystone species from an ecosystem. normal community interactions are significantly altered
what could happen with the depletion of keystone species?may lead to collapse of entire communities and ecosystems
successioncommunity and its nonliving environment change structurally over time
what leads to a succession?a disturbance
primary successionno trace of previous community. may take thousands of years. the disturbance could be a glacier scouring the lanscape or a volcano. starts from scratch.
secondary successtionoccurs after a disturbance changes but does not obliterate an existing community. Example: growth of plants in a plowed field. takes 10s to 100s of years
bioticliving things in an environment
abitoticnonliving things in an environment
what determines the movement of nutrients in an environment?the interaction between biotic and abitoic factors
the two laws of the movement of energy through ecosystemsnutrients constantly cycle and recycle through ecosystems and energy moves through communities in a continuous flow
how does energy enter an ecosystemthrough photosynthesis
how much of the suns energy reaches earth 1%
trophic level"feeding level" the categories of organisms in a community (the position of an organism in a food chain)
As you go up trophic levels, there is a ______ in net energydecrease

Section 3

Question Answer
which trophic level has the most energy?producers
which trophic level has the least energy?tertiary consumer
biomassthe total weight of all living material within a defined area
what is the 4 steps on the trophic levels?producers, primary consumer, secondary consumer, and tertiary consumer
biomass pyramid has what shapethe same shape as energy pyramid (most weight on the bottom then decreases up)
biological magnificationtoxic chemicals are progressively transferred up the food chain leading to the toxin becoming increasingly concentrated in higher trophic levels
net primary productionthe energy stored in the autotrophs of an ecosystem over a given period of time
net primary production is influenced by what 4 thingsnutrients available to producers, sunlight reaching them, amount of water, and temperature
would the ocean of the forest have a greater net primary production?the forest
food chaina linear feeding relationship in a community using a single representative from each of the trophic levels
food webthe complex feeding relationships within a community including many organisms at various trophic levels with many of the consumers occupying more than one level simultaneously
phytoplanktondominant producers on aquatic habitats and half of the photosynthesis on earth
which type of chart would show omnivores: food chains or food websfood webs. show complex relationships
detritus feeders"debris eaters" mostly small unnoticed organisms such as earthworms and slugs. which feed on dead leaves and dead bodies
decomposersprimarily fungi and bacteria that feed on dead leaves and dead bodies not by ingesting but with an enzyme secretion outside their bodies
what would happen if there were no detritus feeders and decomposers?primary productivity would stop so there would be no more nutrients
do nutrients flow to earth in a steady stream?no
micronutrientsrequired in trace amounts
macronutrientsrequired in large amounts. chemical building blocks of life

Section 4

Question Answer
nutrient cycledescribe pathways that nutrients follow between communities and the abiotic portions of ecosystems
reservoirssources and storage sites of nutriends. major reservoirs usually in abiotic environment
hydrologic cyclewater. major reservoir: oceans. driven by solar energy which evaporates water which then falls back to eartch as precipitation
carbon cycleproducers capture CO2 from photosynthesis, primary consumers eat producers and acquire carbon, carbon released back to its reservoirs by cellular respiration (breathing)
the framework for all organic moleculescarbon
nitrogen cyclemajor reservoir: atmosphere. smaller reservoirs of ammonia and nitrate in soil and water. Ammonia and water are absorbed by producers and incorporated in biological molecules. consumers eat producers. decomposers break down bodies and denitrifying bacteria break down nitrate releasing is back to the atmosphere
where is nitrogen foundin proteins, vitamins, nucleotides, and nucleic acids
phosphorus cyclemajor reservoirs in soil and water.
does not have atmospheric reservephosphorus cycle
phosphorus is absorbed byautotrophs then incorporated into biological molecules then pass through food webs
4 things phosphorus is inATP and NADP, nucleic acids, phospholipids of cell membranes, and vertebrate teeth and bones
2 sources add CO2 to atmospherefossil fuels and deforestation
interfereing with the ______ cycle warms the Earth's climatecarbon cycle
heating of fossil fuels causesrelease of longer storage of carbon
6 factors that affect fate of sunlight entering atmospheresunlight enters atmosphere, some energy from sun is reflected back to space, most sunlight reaches earth then converted to heat, heat is radiated back into the atmosphere, most heat is released back to space, greenhouse effect: CO2 and several greenhouse gases trap some heat in atmosphere

Section 5

Question Answer
greenhouse effectCo2 and several other greenhouse gases trap some heat in atmosphere
accounts for most greenhouse emissionsCO2