Ch. 21

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Section 1

Question Answer
1. Saliva and lacrimal fluids contain this enzyme that destroys bacteria. a. Trypsin b. Reverse transcriptase c. Interferon d. Lysozymed. Lysozyme
2. Which of the following statements is not true of natural killer cells? a. They are specialized lymphocytes. b. They are part of the innate defense system. c. They react against very specific pathogens. d. They promote apoptosis. c.They react against very specific pathogens.
3. Neutrophils are able to squeeze through the capillary walls in a process called ________. a. leukocytosis b. margination c. diapedesis d. hyperemiac. diapedesis
4. During the inflammation process the mast cells release _________, which causes vasodilation. a. Interferon b. histamine c. defensin d. heparin e. endothelinb. histamine
5. Which of the following is NOT one of the cardinal signs of inflammation? a. Opsonization b. Heat c. Pain d. Redness e. Swelling a.Opsonization
6. Complement proteins and antibodies coat a microorganism and provide binding sites, enabling macrophages and neutrophils to phagocytize the organism. This phenomenon is termed ________. a. Diapedesis b. Chemotaxis c. Opsonization d. Agglutinationc. Opsonization
7. The basic mechanism employed by complement to fight bacterial infections is _______. a. antibody production b. fever elevation c. bacterial cell membrane lysis d. antiviral protein synthesis c.bacterial cell membrane lysis
8. These proteins are released by virus-infected cells and help protect surrounding uninfected cells. a. Complement b. Defensins c. Interferons d. Prostaglandinsc. Interferons
9. Release of pyrogens directly results in: a. Inflammation b. Fever c. Migration of WBCs d. Cell apoptosis e. B cell activationb. Fever

Section 2

Question Answer
10. A "nonself" substance that can provoke an immune response is called a(n) __________. a. Antibody b. Immunoglobulin c. Interferon d. Interleukin e. Antigene. Antigen
11. The unresponsiveness of our lymphocytes to our own body cells is called _______. a. immunocompetence b. histocompatibility c. self-tolerance d. immunological memory c. self-tolerance
12. The adaptive immune system involves three major cell types: antigen-presenting cells; T cells, which constitute _______ immunity; and B cells, which govern _______ immunity. a. nonspecific; specific b. antigenic; allergic c. MHC; MAC d. cell-mediated; humoral d. cell-mediated; humoral
13. The ability of antibodies to block specific sites on pathogens so that they cannot bind to cell receptors is called _______. a. agglutination b. activation c. neutralization d. precipitationc. neutralization
14. Clone cells capable of secreting large amounts of antibodies are called ______. a. memory cells b. T cells c. plasma cells d. macrophagesc. plasma cells
15. Which of the following best describes an antibody's mode of action? a. Antibodies punch holes in bacterial cell membranes. b. Antibodies immobilize antigens and mark them for destruction. c. Antibodies bind to antigens and transport them to the liver for excretion. d. Antibodies secrete antiviral proteins. b. Antibodies immobilize antigens and mark them for destruction.
16. The part of the antibody that binds specifically to an antigen includes: a. The variable regions of the heavy and light chains b. The constant regions of the heavy and light chains c. The variable region of the light chain only d. The constant region of the heavy chain only e. More than one of the above a. The variable regions of the heavy and light chains
17. Antibodies are grouped into 5 classes, based on the structure of the ________. a. variable region b. constant region c. heavy chain d. light chainb. constant region
18. Which class of immunoglobulin is the most effective at agglutination?Igm
19. A vaccination works to establish __________ immunity. a. Passive naturally-acquired b. Active naturally-acquired c. Passive artificially -acquired d. Active artificially-acquired d. Active artificially-acquired
20. What type of immunity is established after you come down with the flu? a. Passive naturally-acquired b. Active naturally-acquired c. Passive artificially -acquired d. Active artificially-acquired b. Active naturally-acquired

Section 3

Question Answer
21. True or false: Like B cells, T cells recognize and bind to free floating antigens. False
22. Which of the following would not be a target of T cell-mediated immunity? a. intracellular pathogens that reside within host cells b. some cancer cells c. foreign tissue transplants d. pathogens in the lumen of the stomach d. pathogens in the lumen of the stomach
23. Most CD4 cells can turn into all the of following EXCEPT: a. Helper T cells b. Regulatory T cells c. Cytotoxic T cells d. Memory T cellsc. Cytotoxic T cells
24. CD8 cells, when activated, are able to: a. Secrete antibodies b. Directly kill target cells c. Differentiate into Helper T cells d. Release histamine e. All of these b. Directly kill target cells
25. MHC Class I proteins are found on the plasma membranes of: a. Most body cells b. APCs only c. Most T cells d. Most B cellsa. Most body cells
26. Cytotoxic T cells recognize ______ on ______ cells. a. MHC I; antigen-presenting b. MHC I; all body c. MHC II; antigen-presenting d. MHC II; all body e. All of these b. MHC I; all body
27. MHC Class II proteins carrying non-self antigens are recognized by and trigger the activation of: a. Natural killer cells b. B cells c. Plasma cells d. CD4 T cells e. CD8 T cellsd. CD4 T cells
28. Which of the following is not an antigen-presenting cell? a. T lymphocyte b. Macrophage c. B lymphocyte d. Dendritic cell e. All of these are antigen-presenting cellsa. T lymphocyte
29. Which of the following functions are performed by Helper T cells? a. Help activate T and B cells b. Induce proliferation of T and B cells c. Release cytokines recruit other immune cells d. Amplify responses of innate immune system e. All of these e. All of these
30. Without __________ there would be no adaptive immune response. a. Complement b. B cells c. Macrophages d. Helper T cellsd. Helper T cells

Section 4

Question Answer
31. Select the correct definition about tissue grafts. a. Isografts are between identical twins. b. Allografts are between different species. c. Xenografts are between individuals of the same species. d. Autografts are between two genetically identical individuals. a. Isografts are between identical twins
32. True or false: Allografts are generally better tolerated than autografts.False
33. HIV targets _______ cells, which are also termed _______. a. CD4, helper T cells b. CD4, cytotoxic T cells c. CD8, helper T cells d. CD8, cytotoxic T cells a.CD4, helper T cells
34. True or false: AIDS stands for "Autoimmune Deficiency Syndrome"False
35. This type of disease results from the inability of the immune system to distinguish self- from nonself-antigens. a. Autoimmune disease b. Immunodeficiency c. Anaphylaxis d. Allergya. Autoimmune disease
36. The most common type of immediate hypersensitivity is ________. a. Autoimmune disease b. Immunodeficiency c. Delayed d. Allergyd. Allergy
37. The antibody that becomes bound to mast cells and basophils and causes the cells to release histamine and other chemicals is ________.IgE
38. To counteract the events of anaphylactic shock, _________ is usually administered. a. Histamine b. IgE c. Epinephrine d. Nitric oxidec. Epinephrine