Ch 21 terms

brendonlc123's version from 2017-01-31 03:32


Question Answer
wildland firesunplanned/uncontrolled fires burning in vegetative fuel (grass, leaves, crop fields, and trees)
ground cover firesburn loose debris on the surface of the ground.
wildlandland in an uncultivated natural state covered by timber, woodland, brush, or grass.
fine fuelsincludes dry vegetation. (twigs, leaves, needles, grass, moss, and light brush.)
heavy fuelslarger diameter than fine fuels. (large brush, heavy timber, stumps, branches, and dead timber on the ground.
subsurface fuelsfuels located under the ground. (roots, moss, duff, and decomposed stumps.)
suface fuelsfuels located close to the surface of the ground.
aerial fuelsfuels located more than 6ft (2 meters) above the ground. (trees, attached tree limbs including leaves and needles on limbs.)
fuel compactnesshow compressed the fuels are- determining how fast or slow oxygen and heat can reach large surfaces of the fuel. (influences the rate at which a wildland fire burns.)
fuel continuitywildland fuels that have uninterrupted connections. fuels that touch or are located close to each other. (ex. intertwined tree branches)
fuel volumequantity of fuel available in a specific area. (influences fire growth and intensity.)
fuel moistureamount of moisture contained in fuel. (influences speed of ignition, rate of spread, and fire intensity.)
relative humidity (RH)ratio of the amount of water vapor present in the air compared to the maximum amount of water vapor that the air can hold at a given temperature.
topographychanges of elevation in the land as well as the positions natural and man-made features. (has a major effect on behavior of wildland and ground fires.)
area of originthe location where a wildland or ground fire begins.
head of the firethe most rapidly moving area (traveling edge of the fire)
heel of the firearea closer to the origin (AKA: rear of the fire)
fingerlong, narrow extension of fire projected out of the fire. (can grow because of changes in wind direction, topography, and fuel)
pocketan unburned area between a finger and the main body of the fire. (dangerous place for firefighters)
islandarea of land left untouched by the fire, but is surrounded by burned land.
spot firesa new fire that starts outside the perimeter of the main fire. (usually forms by a spark or ember picked up by convection currents and carried over.)
greenareas containing unburned fuels (likely to become involved in the fire.
blackareas that have already burned (usually relatively safe for firefighters.)
backpack pump extinguishersused for small fires with a light fuel load. (holds between 4-8 gallons of water)
McLeod toola combination of hoe and rake. (also used for fireline construction.)
pulaski axea combination of an adaze and an axe (for brush removal.)
council rakelong-handled rake constructed with hardened triangular-shaped teeth (used for digging, rolling burning logs, cutting grass/small brush, and raking a fireline down to mineral soil with no subsurface fuel.
backfiringto burn an area of vegetation in front of a fire to create a wide area with no vegetation.
compressed-air foam systems (CAFS)combines foam, concentrate, water and compressed air to produce a foam that will stick to vegetaton, and structures.
pincer attacktwo crews pf firefighters mount a two-pronged attack, with one crew suppressing one side of the fire and the other crew suppressing the other side of the fire. ('pinches' out the fire.)
flanking attackIC positions the crew on one side of the fire and the crew suppresses it. (only one crew is required.)
direct attackcontaining and extinguishing the fire at its burning edge.
inderect attackbuilding a fire line across natural fuel breaks, at favorable breaks in the topography, or at a considerable distance from the fire and then burning out the intervening fuel. (most often used for large wildland and ground fires too dangerous to approach through direct attack.)
power take-off shaftprovides power to the PTO, allowing pump-and-roll capability.
fire shelterdesigned to reflect approx 95% of fire's radiant heat for short period. (made of thin, reflective-foil layer that is attached to a layer of fiberglass.)
wildland-urban interfacearea where undeveloped land with vegetative fuels mixed with man-made structures.
defensible spacearea around a structure where combustible vegetation that can spread fire has been cleared, reduced, or replaced.
Adzeused to grub out brush to create a fire break. (often used in heavy brush.)
ground duffthe partly decomposed organic material on a forest floor.

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