Ch.15 Abnormal Psych

octopirecipes's version from 2015-12-10 06:41


Question Answer
neurocognitive disordersbroad impair in cognitive functioning "thinking skills" profound change in behaviors & personality.
deliriumimpaired consciousness & cognition. Develops in hours/days. (Acute condition or crisis) Confusing, disoriented, inattentiveness, memory and language deficits.
delirium prevalance20% of adults, elderly, undergoing medican procedures, aids, cander, alcohold detox patients.
delirium recoveryoccurs withing days to several weeks.
medical conditions related to deliriumdementia, drugs, poisons, withdrawals, head injury, brain trauma, sleep deprivation, immobility, excessive stress.
delirium treatmentattention to medical problems, reassurance/comfort, coping strategies, inclusion in treastment decitions.
delirium preventionproper medical care for illness, theraupetic drugs, monitor side effects.


Question Answer
dementiadeterioration of brain functioning, abnormal decline, relative to norms for age and education levels, deterioration in judgement, memory, language, advance cognitive procresses, irreversible rule out delirium +depression.
major neurocognitive disorderone or mroe cognitive deficits, decrease in function, clinically asses, interferes with daily independent activities.
Major ND prevalancenew case every 7 seconds, 5% adults 65+, 20% adults 85+.
Mild ND prevalance10% adults 70+.
Major and Mild Neurocogtives Disordersdue to alzherimers, huntingtons, lewy bodies, traimatic brain injury, HIV infection, Parkinson's.


Question Answer
ND due to alzheimershalf of NDS, develops gradually/steadily. affect memory, judgment, resoning. Agitation, confusion, combativeness, depression/anxiety.
ND due to ALZH prevanlance5 million american, millions world wide. onset 60's-70's, early onself 40s-50s. 50% of NDS are ALZHS. commong in less educated, more educated individuals decline more rapidly, knowledge is a buffer, more common in women because of loss of estrogen (protective).
Aphasiadifficulty with language
Apraxiaimpaired motor functioning
Agnosiafailure to recognize objects
AZHS difficultigesplanning, organizing, sequencing, abstract infor, negative impact on social/occupation funtioning.


Question Answer
vascular neurocognitive disorder cognitive disturbances identical to dementia, obvious brain tissue samage.caused by blokage or damage to blood vessels, 2nd leading cause to ND's after ALZHS. onset is sudden, impairments are varied.
VND prevalance 1.5% in 70-75, 15% in over 80%, risk higher in men.
ND due to traumatic brain injuryleading cause, symtoms last one week after injury problems with executive functioning, learning, memorry loss. (found most in athletes ex. football players.)
ND due to Lewy body dieseasemicroscopic protein depostis that damage brain over time, gradual onset, imparied attention, alertness, visual hallucinations, motor impairment.
Subtance/medication induce neurocognitive disorderresults in prolonged drug use + poor diet (korsaoff sundroms) alcohol, sedatives, hypnotic, anxiolytic, or inhalant drugs. Permanent brain damamge, symptoms similar to ALZHS.


Question Answer
ALHZS brainsneurofibrilliary tangles, amyloud plaques, brainds tend to strophy, multiple genes involves 21, 19, 14, 12. chromosome 14 > early onser 19 > late onset.
deterministic genesrare genes that inevitably leads to ALHZS, (beta amyloid purcursore geren, presenili-1, presenilin-2 genes)
susceptibility genesmake it more likely but not certain to develop ALZHS
dementia causeslifestyle factors, cultural factions, psychosocial factors may influence onset and course.
treatments of ND'sfew in numbers, slow progresiion
future treatments of ND'sglial cell derived neurotrophic factor, stem cells, may slow deterioiration, drugs that target cognitive deficits, cholinesterase inhibitors, enzymes that deactivate acetylcholine in the synapse.drugs (SSRIS for depression/anxiety, Antipsychotics (agitation)) effective for short periods. currently testing vaccines.
psychosocial treatment of ND'senjance lives of patients/familist, teach compesatory skills, memory enhancement devices,cognitive stimulcation can delay onset of more severe symptoms. Caregivers (helps with wandering, innpropriate social because, aggresiveness and rebelliousness.)
prenvetion of ND'suse anti inflammatory medications, control blood pressure, don't smoke, lead active social life, excercise. increase safety behaviors to reduce head trauma, reduce exposure to neurotoxins and use of drugs.
neuropsychological assesmentassesed cognitive functioning along multiple dimensions (IQ, memory, languages, attentiong, visual/spatial, psychomotor, executived functioning.) Asses streght/weeakness, cognitive/change dure to illness/injury. assists w/diagnosis, disability, determination, and treatment planning.