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Ch 1 test introduction to Anatomy

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laurabockoff's version from 2016-09-20 09:53

Section 1

Question Answer
Anatomythe study of the STRUCTURE of body parts
physiologythe study of the FUNCTION of body parts
cellsstructures that make up the basic unit of life
Tissuesany of the distinct types of material of which animals or plants are made, consisting of specialized cells and their products.
Organsa part of an organism that is typically self-contained and has a specific vital function
memorize

Section 2

Question Answer
Homeostasisthe body's way of maintaining a relatively constant internal environment
negative feedbackoccurs when a pathway leads to a decrease in the original stimulus. The stimulus tops and the pathway shuts of ex) fever
Anatomical positionwhen the body is erect, hands at the sides, palms facing anteriorly (front)
Sagittal/Median Planedivides the body into left and right parts
Midsadittal Planedivides the body into left and right parts directly through the middle
Transverse Planedivides the body into superior and inferior parts
Frontal Planedivides the body into anterior and posterior parts
memorize

Section 3

Question Answer
Cranial Cavitypart of the Dorsal cavity and contains the brain
Spinal Cavitypart of the Dorsal cavity and contains the spinal cord
Thoracic cavitypart of the ventral cavity and contains the pleural and pericardial cavity
Abdominopelvic cavitypart of the ventral cavity and contains the pelvic cavity and abdominal cavity
peural Cavitypart of the thoracic cavity and contains the lungs
pericardial cavitypart of the thoracic cavity and contains the heart
abdominal cavitypart of the abdominopelvic cavity and contains the stomach, liver, intestines, pancreas
Pelvic cavitypart of the abdominopelvic cavity and contains the bladder and reproductive organs
memorize

Section 4

Question Answer
visceralin relation to internal structures
Male Reproduction systempenis and testes. Function is sperm production
Female Reproduction systemovaries, eggs, vagina, and uterus. Function is for the release of eggs and provides an environment for fetal development
Cardiovascularheart, blood vessels, blood. Function is for the transportation of nutrients like oxygen, iron, and wastes
Digestive systemstomach, intestines, esophagus. Function: breakdown of food for energy and removal of wastes
Respiratory systemlungs, nose, diaphragm, trachea. Function: gas exchange (breathing)
Nervous systemnerves, brain, spinal cord. Function: communication through impulses (memory, intelligence, language)
Immune systemwhite blood cells, lymph nodes, T/B cells, macrophages. Function: protection from viruses and bacteria
Skeletal systembones, ligaments, tendons, bone marrow. Function: structure, protection (for organs), movement
Enfocrine systemthyroid gland, pituitary, pancreas. Function: produces and secretes hormones
Muscular Systemmuscles, tendons. Function: movement, protection, main producers of heat production
Urinary systemkidneys, bladder, uterers. Function: filters blood, urine production, maintains electrolyte/water balance within the body
Integumentary Organsin, nails, hair, sweat glands. Function is for protection and temperature regulation
memorize

Section 5

Question Answer
local diseasesincludes diseases that only affects certain parts of the body ex) skin cancer affects only parts of the skin
systemic diseasediseases that affect entire systems of the body ex) parkinsons disease
Acute diseases/disordersdiseases that affect a person for a certain amount of time. Usually temporary ex) acute hypotension (circulatory shock)
Chronic Diseases/disordersdiseases that remain for a long time and get worse. Usually no cure ex) arthritis, hypertension
memorize

Section 6

Question Answer
Anteriortowards the front ex) toes are anterior to the heals
Posteriortowards the back
Superiortowards the head ex) the knee is superior to the shin
inferiortowards the feet
Medical towards the middle
lateraltowards the side
Proximalcloser to the point of attachment
distalfurther from the point of attachment ex) the wrist is distal to the elbow
superficialtowards the surface
deepaway from the surface
centraltowards the middle
peripheraltowards the side
memorize

Section 7

Question Answer
sagittalplane divides the body into left and right parts
Frontalplane divides the body into anterior and posterior parts
Transverseplane divides the body into superior and inferior parts
memorize

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