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CGC1D1-01 Unit Test pics

dingdong113's version from 2018-12-11 22:20


Question Answer
finding average annual temperatureadd 12 temps for 12 months then divide by 2
finding temperature rangehighest temperature subtract lowest temperature
finding total precipitationadd all monthly precipitation
finding seasonal distributionadd winter month precipitation (Oct-Mar) and add summer month precipitation (Apr-Sept)
seasonal distribution- if summer maxContinental
seasonal distribution- if winter maxMaritime
seasonal distribution- if winter max- Large difference between summer and winterwest coast
seasonal distribution- if winter max- small difference between summer and wintereast coast
3 tests to determine climate typeTemperature Range (>25 degrees C - Continental, <25 degrees C - Maritime), Total Precipitation (<1000mm - Continental, >1000mm - Maritime), Seasonal Distribution (Summer max-Continental, Winter max-Maritime) (Tests are best 2 out of 3)
the Lake effectCold air blows over open lakes, air is warmed by waters. air rises, carrying water vapours. when vapours meet cold air, creates fog. the more air rises, the cooler it gets. ice crystals form, feeding the clouds. clouds eventually are unable to support the moisture. results in heavy snowfall on lee side of lake
Difference between climate and weather - weathershort term day to day patterns
Difference between climate and weather - climatelong term patterns in the weather, future
6 factors affecting climateLatitude, Ocean currents, Winds and air masses, Elevation(Altitude), Relief, Near water (LOWERN)
LatitudeDistance from equator. Closer = hotter, farther = colder because suns energy is less/more concentrated depending on how close you are to the equator
Ocean Currentstemp of ocean affects air around it. warm water = warmer ai, cold water = colder air. when warm and cold air meet, fog is created
Wind and Air massesAir mass-large volume of air that takes on climatic conditions of the area where it was formed. Wind-caused by difference in air pressure
ElevationThe higher the elevation, the colder it is due to lower air pressure causing air to cool
ReliefThe topography of an area. mountains = barriers. windward side is moist, cool, leeward side is dry, warm
Near WaterContinental-far from moisture, dry, large temperature range. Maritime-more precipitation, low temperature range due to water's moderating effect
types of precipitationCyclonic, Convectional, Relief
Relief precipitationcreated by mountain barriers, moist air rises over mountain, cools, condenses, more precipitation on windward side. as air descends, warms, evaporates, less precipitation
Convectional precipitationcommon in summer in prairie provinces. intense heating, air rises, expands, becomes clouds. continuous condensation results in storms
Cyclonic precipitationlarge, low-pressure system where warm air collides with cool air. as warm air moves inward to low pressure, it cools, creating precipitation. warm air rises at warm front and cold front. in North America, these move west to east


Question Answer
___years to form___cm of topsoil500, 2
volume of water in soil is ___ than volume of water in all rivers in the worldgreater
processes on forming soilLeaching, Calcification, Weathering
LeachingTop process, topsoil is made from organic material, downward movement of water through soil, wet climates
CalcificationBottom process, subsoil and topsoil made of weathered bedrock, water from below is drawn up to horizon A, dry climates
WeatheringRock is broken down into smaller particles
AcronymmBAM (minerals, bacteria and organic materials, air, moisture)
mineralscome from parent material (rock or loose material)
bacteria and organic materials(humus), plants/animals die and are decomposed by bacteria
airplants need air near roots, humus helps form produce air pockets in soil
moisturewater dissolves nutrients in soil
HorizonsA,B,C (A-Topsoil-humus, dark brown/black, B-Subsoil-more solid, lighter colour, ex. clay, C-made of bedrock, least weathered)
Soil erosion reasonsagricultural industry, deforestation, wind, water, glaciers

Vegetation Regions

Question Answer
Number of regions7
largest regionBoreal and Taiga
smallest regionDeciduous Forest
northmost regionTundra
southmost regionDeciduous Forest
Westmost regionCordilleran Vegetation
Eastmost regionBoreal and Taiga
Name the regionsTundra, Boreal and Taiga Forest, Grassland, Mixed Forest, Deciduous Forest, West Coast Forest, Cordilleran Vegetation

Deciduous, Coniferous and Permafrost

Question Answer
Deciduouslose leaves each year
Coniferouscone bearing, stay green
Permafrostsoil/rock/sediment frozen for more than 2 consecutive years


Question Answer
Definitiona region determined on the basis of physical, biological and human characteristics
IncludesLandforms, climate, vegetation, soil, wildlife, human activities
Boundarieschanges in landform, climate, soil and human activities (boundaries between ecozones doesn't mean the region changes drastically)

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