Cerebral cortex, Lecture 3 part 2

doboviyo's version from 2016-08-20 15:00


Question Answer
Lobes of Cerebral Cortexfrontal, occipital, parietal, temporal, insula
Frontal lobeSpatial tasks, object recall, multi-task problems, and learned motor movements
Frontal lobe outer cortexouter cortex (Superior, Middle, Inferior- Frontal Gyrus), precentral gyrus, orbital gyrus, gyrus rectus
Frontal lobe inner cortexCingulate gyrus
Superior frontal gyrusjoy, self-awareness, laughter, eye-movements, visual attention
Middle frontal gyruspre-motor and supplementary motor functions
Inferior frontal gyrushouses brodmann's areas 44, 45, 47--broca's aphasia (44), "go or no go"
Homonculus"little man", how the areas of the body are represented in the motor and sensory areas of brain
Precentral Gyrushouses brodmann's area 4 and part of 43
Orbital Gyrusassociated with vagus nerve
Gyrus rectusfunction unknown
Cingulate gyrusmeans belt, sits above corpus callosum, plays role in limbic system, social behavior & mood
Cingulate gyrusprimitive, bestial brain, respiratory control, learning, some aspects of memory, attention to motor planning/execution, help distinguish feeling of pain
Anterior Cingulate gyrusautonomic functions, as reward anticipation, decision-making, empathy and emotion.
Anterior Cingulate gyrusBrodmann area 24, 32, 33
Green, Red, Blue, Purple, Blue, PurpleStroop test, determines levels of interference, Brodmann's area 32
InterferenceDamage to brodmann's area 32 causes which have been associated with disorders such as brain damage, dementia, attention-deficit hyperactivity, schizophrenia
Posterior cingulate gyrusbrodmann area 23, 31, correlation of pain to retrieval of episodic memory, understand other's beliefs, human awareness
Parietal lobe contains somatosensory area, outer cortex, inner cortex
Parietal lobe outer cortexSuperior, inferior parietal lobule, post central gyrus,
Inferior parietal lobuleangular gyrus, supramarginal gyrus
Inner cortex parietal lobeprecuneus
Postcentral gyrusDamage can lead to agraphethesia, astereognosia, loss of proprioception, vibration and fine touch, reduction in nociception/thermoception and crude touch
Agraphethesiacan't determine tactile directionality, caused by damage to Postcentral gyrus
Astereognosiadifficulty recognizing objections by touch, caused by damage to Postcentral gyrus
Superior parietal lobespatial orientation
Inferior parietal lobesupramarginal gyrus, angular gyrus
Supramarginal gyrus, angular gyruslocated in inferior parietal lobe, perception of emotions in facial stimuli, interpreting language, mathematical operations, and body image.
Supramarginal gyrusbrodmann's area 40, wernicke's aphasia, speaks normally but makes up words, damage causes dysprosody, transcortical sensory aphasia, paraphasia
Dysprosodydamage to supramarginal gyrus and brodmann area 40, can't perceive pitch, rhythm or emotional tone of speech
Transcortical sensory aphasiaCaused by damage to ba 40 or supramarginal gyrus, spontaneous speech with poor comprehension
Paraphasia"word substitution", caused by damage to supramarginal gyrus or ba 40
Inferior parietal lobeangular gyrus, brodmann area 39, associated with out of body experiences, semantic aphasia, gerstmann syndrome, finger agnosia
Gerstmann syndromesymptoms include dysgraphia/agraphia, (deficiency in the ability to write), dyscalculia/acalculia (difficulty in learning or comprehending mathematics), caused by damage to ba 39 in angular gyrus
Finger agnosiainability to distinguish fingers on the hand, caused by damage to ba 39 in angular gyrus
Semantic aphasiainability to understand the meaning of words or language, caused by damage to ba 39 in angular gyrus
Precuneusparietal lobe, anterior (self-consciousness and self-awareness), middle (visuospatial processing), posterior (episodic memory), in parietal lobe
Insulalong gyri, short gyri, covered by operculum, continuation of the areas surrounding it
Occipital lobeouter cortex (lateral occipital gyri), inner cortex (cuneus, lingual)
Insula is responsible for salience (focusing and prioritizing), regulates heart beat and blood pressure, vertigo, empathy, orgasms, homeostasis, self awareness