Central Nervous System (CNS)

icer215's version from 2016-08-25 02:06


Question Answer
The brainstemIncludes medulla, pons, and midbrain, Extension of the spinal cord, Similar to spinal cord in terms of function and organization, Regulates blood pressure, berthing, balance, facial muscles, hearing, sleep, etc.
The cerebellumCoordinate movements of eyes, limbs, and head. Contains lots of neurons
The diencephalonIncludes thalamus and hypothalamus. Involves with emotions, sorting information, consciousness, and wakefulness
The cerebrumLargest part of the human brain’s hemisphere. Includes cortex, basal ganglia, amygdala, and hippocampus, and olfactory bulb
Control of voluntary movement in the cerebral cortexPrimary motor cortex allows voluntary movements. Posterior parietal cortex guides voluntary movements in space. Supplementary motor area & premotor cortex àpick voluntary movements


Question Answer
Information processing in the cerebral cortexCortical areas receives and processes information through sensory inputs
Lateralization of cortical functions Affects language, right-or-left handedness, etc.
Methods of studying the brainAccidents, Lesions, EEG, CAT Scan, MRI, PET scan, fMRI
AccidentsThe affect of injury in the brain can be studied
LesionsRemoving parts of the brain and comparing the function/behavior after


Question Answer
EEGElectroencephalogram. Measure brain waves (activity)
CAT ScanComputerized axial tomography. 3D picture of the brain
MRIMagnetic resonance imaging. Picture of the brain in detail
PET scanPosition emission tomography. Scans the brain activity
fMRIapplying similar method of PET scan and the MRI


Question Answer
Dysfunction of neurons can lead toAlzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease
Alzheimer’s diseaseProgressive degeneration. Impairs movements, memory, etc.
Parkinson’s diseaseImpairs motor skills, Myasthenia gravis, Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease
Impairs motor skillsMuscles become rigid à difficult to move


Question Answer
Myasthenia gravisWeakened muscles
Charcot-Marie-Tooth diseaseMuscle tissues and touch senses are loss
Neurotransmitter (NT)help cells to communicate
AcetylcholineAssociated with voluntary movement, memory, learning, and sleep, Too much can cause depression,Too little can cause dementia
SerotoninRegulates appetite, sex drive, moods (impulsive and aggressiveness), and ability to sleep.Too little can cause depression and anxiety disorders (OCD)


Question Answer
DopamineAffects our ability to concentrate, pay attention, learn, and move. Too much can cause schizophrenia. Too little can cause Parkinson’s disease
NorepinephrineInvolved with glucose metabolism and energy. Too little can cause depression
GABA (Gamma-Amino Butyric Acid)Inhibitor neurotransmitter. Too little can cause anxiety disorders
EndorphinsInhibitory neuropeptides. Released in painful/stressful and pleasurable moments. Reduce pain
Behavior GeneticsGenes, temperament, and heredity
GenesPersonality is influenced by genes. There are behaviors that are predetermined by genetics like when children start to walk. When gene is manipulated in a species, their behavior characteristics also differ


Question Answer
Environmental influence is also significant in determining when the event will occur
TemperamentObservable characteristic of infants e.g. Level of emotional excitability or intensity and Particular behavior.
Indicate some aspects of personality of that babyAs the baby experience more in life, personality is shaped
Three types of temperamentDifficult, Easy, Slow-to-warm-up
DifficultEasily irritable. Unpredictable feeding schedules


Question Answer
EasyCalm and happy. Predictable and flexible feeding schedules
Slow-to-warm-upCautious. New environment need some warm-up time to feel comfortable
HeredityParents passing traits to their children. Personality and behavior characteristics overlap between twins, indicating that such traits are heritable
Behaviors areAdaptive and adjustable. Change throughout development, culture, environment, etc.
Adaptive Value of Traits and BehaviorsEach individual with different social skills and competency show different adaptive behaviors
Adaptive behaviorsinclude working, making friends, cooking, dressing, etc.


Question Answer
Different from genetically inherited behaviorsGenetically inherited behaviors
Genetically inherited behaviors are Intrinsic, Stereotype, Inflexible, Consummate
Adapted behaviors areNon-inherited, Extrinsic, Permutable, Progressive
Interaction Between Heredity and Environmental InfluencesInherited traits and learned characteristics interact with each other
Studies done with adopted twins showed thatThere were both shared family factors and non-shared family factors that affect human behavior


Question Answer
Similar behaviors between adopted childrenInternalizing disorders, Temperament, Personality
Demonstrating that there are unique geneticsthat affect their traits while different environmental setting that they were nurtured in also made some difference in behaviors
Genetic and Environmental Factors Contribute to the Development of BehaviorsExperiences in life influence ones behaviors. Regulatory genes and behavior
Regulatory genes and behaviorCentral dogma associated with our behavior. ex. DNA ➙ RNA ➙ protein ➙ affects behavior
Gene regulationAffects one’s behavioral traits
EpigeneticsLong-term changes in ones gene expression that is not necessarily heritable ➙ not involved in changes in the nucleotide sequence (DNA). Simple genetics are overridden by ones behavior ➙ affect different gene expression


Question Answer
Genetically based behavioral variation in natural populationsGenetically based behaviors vary within a population
Genetically based behaviors vary within a population due toSocial factors, Environment, Experiences
Prenatal developmentFormation of an embryo ➙ development of a fetus ➙ birth
Development involvesPre-embryonic stage, Embryonic period, Fetal period
Pre-embryonic stageFirst two weeks of development. Cell division and maturation occurs during this stage
Cell division and maturation occurs during this stageFertilization ➙ cleavage of the zygote ➙ blastocyst formation ➙ implantation


Question Answer
Embryonic periodAlso known as period of organogenesis. 3rd to 8th week of development. Cardiovascular system develops etc.
Fetal period Tissues and organs are matured and Growth of body occurs quickly
Developmental Changes in AdolescencePeriod of change , From childhood to adulthood
One develop abilities toComprehend abstract ideas, Mature senses, Learn about their identity and question things in life, Grow independence
Physical developmentBoth undergo puberty
GirlsBreast development (generally around age 12 to 18), Menstrual period (around 2 years after early breast and pubic hair development)
BoysTestiness and scrotum growth which usually are at adult size around age 17 to 18, Growth of pubic, armpit, leg, chest and facial hair, Vocal changes (deeper tone)