Cellular Anatomy, Integumentary And Musculoskeletal Systems - Part 4

csmoot85's version from 2015-06-05 13:39

Section 1

Question Answer
ball-and-socket jointsround head of one bone fits into a concave socket of another
hinge jointsallow movement in only two directions (eg. elbow, knee, finger)
pivot jointssmall projections of one bone that are connected to the arch of another bone, allowing it to rotate
saddle jointsexist only between the metacarpal bone of each thumb and the carpal bone of the wrist
gliding jointsleast movable diarthrotic joints, flat surfaces allow limited gliding movement (eg. joints that allow the torso to bend)
condyloid jointsallow condyle to slip into an elliptical socket
amphiarthrotic jointscan perform limited amount of movement, cartilage connects the joined bones (eg. joints between the vertebrae of the spinal column)
synarthrotic jointstotally immoveable joints that don’t have a joint cavity, tissue grows beterrn the adjoining bones (eg. bones of the skull)


Question Answer
flexionthe act of bending or the condition of being bent
extensionreturn from flexion, returns body to anatomical position
abductionmoving the bone away from the midline of the body (eg. move the arms straight out to the sides)
adductionopposite of abduction (eg. bringing arms back to the sides)
rotationpivoting or moving of a bone upon its own axis (eg. turning the head from side to side)
lateral rotationrotation outward, away from the body’s midline
medial rotationrotation inward towards the body’s midline
supinationrotates the forearm to bring the palms forward
pronationrotates the forearm to bring the palms backward
dorsiflexionbends the limb upward such as a hand or foot that’s raised
plantar flexionbends the limb downward, as when pointing the toes
eversionrefers to when the foot is turned outward from the body
inversionis the act of turning the foot toward the midline


Question Answer
arthritisthe most common joint disease, inflammation of the joint resulting in persistent pain and stiffness
rheumatoid arthritismost serious and crippling form of arthritis, systemic disease that gradually affects more joints as time passes
ankylosing spondylitisan inflammation of the joints that link the vertebrae, leaves joints hardened and damaged
gouty arthritisan inflammation of the joints caused by a metabolism defect, which results in an excessive amount of uric acid in the blood, joints, and soft tissue near joints
osteoarthritisa condition that normally occurs because of wear and tear on the joints, mostly affects the elderly, causes smooth lining of joint to crack and flake
bunionan abnormal swelling of the joint between the big toe and the first metatarsal bone
carpal tunnel syndromecaused by tissues that swell and compress the median nerve as it runs between the ligament and the bones and tendons of the wrist
fracture-dislocationfracture of a bone near a joint, also involving dislocation of a joint
ganglioncystic mass arising from a tendon in the wrist, develops a jelly-like substance which accumulates and causes the tendon to balloon out
lyme diseasea recurrent disorder that’s caused by the spirochete borrella burgdorferi (a bacterium that’s carried by a tick)
systemic lupus erythematosusa chronic inflammatory disease involving the joints, skin, kidneys, nervous system, heart, and lungs
spraintrauma to a joint with pain, swelling, and injury to ligaments


Question Answer
antinuclear antibodiespresent in a variety of immunologic diseases, may indicate rheumatoid arthritis
c-reactive protein blood testpositive result may indicate rheumatoid arthritis, acute inflammatory change, and widespread metastasis
serum rheumatoid factoran immunoglobin that’s present in the serum of 50 to 95 percent of adults who suffer from rheumatoid arthritis
uric acid blood testmeasures the uric acid level, increased levels could indicate gout, arthritis, multiple myeloma, and rheumatism
goniometrythe measurement of joint movements and angles via a goniometer
skin biopsyconfirms diagnosis of inflammatory connective tissue diseases
arthographydiagnostic examination of a joint (usually the knee) in which air and then a radiopaque contrast are injected into the joint space, internal injuries may be seen, if present
thermographythe process of recording heat patterns of the body’s surface, can be used to investigate the pathophysiology of rheumatoid arthritis
joint scanthe most sensitive study for the detection of early joint disease, allows determination of joint damage throughout the body


Question Answer
arthrocentesisperformed to obtain synovial fluid, especially from the knee or shoulder, for the purpose of examination or removing accumulate fluid from the joint
arthroscopythe process of examining the internal structures of a joint via arthroscope, usually done after arthrography and before joint surgery
arthrotomysurgical opening of a joint
arthroclasiaartificial breaking of an ankylosed joint to provide movement
bursectomyexcision of bursa
capsulotomyan incision of a capsule, such as the of a joint
synovectomythe excision of synovial membrane

Section 2

Question Answer
skeletal musclesmuscles we build up by lifting weights
skeletal muscles are ____ musclesstriated, voluntary
hypertrophythe process of individual cells growing in size
____ form when plasma membranes of adjacent fibers come in contact with each otherintercalated disks
muscle tissues ____ in response to nerve signalscontract
when a skeletal muscle contracts, it pulls against ____bone
____ are the cartilaginous bands that connect the ends of muscle to bonetendons
each muscle contraction requires energy in the form of ____adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
the ____ unit is the basic unit of contracting musclemotor
the motor neuron releases ____ into the neuromuscular junctionacetylcholine
muscle contraction depends on channeling of ____ in and out of the muscle cellsodium, potassium, and calcium
the muscle cell contains a network of proteins called ____ that slide along each other to shorten the cell (contraction)myofilaments


Question Answer
as the ATP supply dwindles ____ is transferred to ATP as neededcreatine phosphate
after the creatine phosphate is deleted, muscle cells must manufacture more ATP and creatine phosphate from ____glucose
glycogen is stored in the muscle cells and then broken down via ____cellular respiration
when not in motion, the body is in a state of partial contraction known asmuscle tone
____ exercise is performed while lifting weights, running, or swimmingisotonic
the shrinkage of muscle size during prolonged periods of inactivity is calledatrophy
____ are extremely strong, narrow cords of fibrous tissue that attach muscles to bonestendons
____ is a special type of tendon that attaches muscles to bones or functions as fascia to bind muscles togetheraponeurosis
the ____ tendon (tendon calcaneus) stretches down the calf to the heelachilles
the ____ are the tendons of the thigh muscle and allow the leg to flex at the kneehamstrings
tendon ____ enclose some tendons and are lined with synovial fluidsheaths


Question Answer
biceps brachiiupper arm
triceps brachiiback portion of upper arm
deltoidshoulder and upper arm
latissimus dorsioriginates over lower back
pectoralis majorupper chest
external obliqueouter layer of abdominal wall
internal obliquemiddle layer of abdominal wall
transversus abdominisinnermost layer of abdominal wall
rectus abdominisruns down the midline of the abdomen from the thorax to pubis
iliopsasoriginates deep within the pelvis and lower vertebrae to the femur and hip joint
gluteus maximusforms the outer contour and much of the buttock
adductor muscleson the inner or medial side of the thigh
quadriceps femorisupper thigh muscle group
tibialis anteriorfront surface of the leg
gastrocnemiusprimary calf muscle
peroneus groupfound along the sides of the lower leg


Question Answer
pulled muscleoverstretched muscle that may have torn tendons
severed tendonwhen the tendon snaps away from the site of injury, surgery is required for surgeon to locate both ends of the tendon
straincondition involving tearing of muscle tissue due to overuse during exercise or other activity, results in internal bleeding into the muscle tissue
spasmcondition characterized by undesired, prolonged contraction of a muscle


Question Answer
tendinitisthe inflammation of a tendon
tennis elbow (lateral epicondylitis)an inflammation of the tendon that connects the extensor muscles of the forearm to the elbow
rotator cuff diseasean inflammation of tendons surrounding the shoulder joint
torticollisan inflammatory condition of the neck muscles
fibrositisan inflammation of the fibrous connective tissues
fasciitisan inflammation of a fascia
polymyositisan inflammation of the muscles, commonly affects the shoulders and pelvis
electromyographya test on the electrical properties of the inflamed muscles, used to determine the presence of inflammation or degeneration
muscle biopsyremoval of muscle tissue for microscopic examination
herniorrhaphythe surgical repair of a hernia
myorrhaphythe suturing of a muscle
myotasisstretching of a muscle (surgical procedure)


Question Answer
herniaa condition characterized by the protrusion of a body through an abnormal hole or defect
epigrastic herniaoccurs in the central abdominal muscles
paraumbilical herniaoccurs in the abdominal wall near the navel
inguinal herniaoccurs in the groin area
femoral herniaoccurs in a slightly lower area below the groin
hiatal herniaoccurs in the diaphragm
incisional herniaresults from abdominal surgery


Question Answer
talipesresult from a flattening of the natural arch of the foot
tetanusinvolves continuous spasm of certain muscles (including the jaw) as a reaction to the toxin produced by the bacillus clostridium tetani
duchenne’s muscular dystrophyan inherited disorder characterized by slow, progressive deterioration of muscle tissue
myasthenia gravisa condition that involves dysfunction of the neuro-muscular junction that results in progressive muscle weakness
fibromyalgia syndromea poorly understood syndrome characterized by chronic pain and fatigue
muscular dystrophya disease that causes muscles to progressively weaken and atrophy, a rare hereditary disease that results in total disability
rhabdomyosarcomamalignant muscle tumor, requires surgical removal, has poor prognosis


Question Answer
LUMB/Olower back, loin
MAXILL/Oupper jaw bone
SPAS/Odraw, pull
SYNOC/Osynovial membrane


Question Answer
claudicationlameness, limping
contracturea condition in which the muscle shortens and renders it resistant to normal stretching
crepitationdry, crackling sound or sensation produced by grating ends of fractured bone
degenerationprocess of deterioration, changing from higher to lower form
dermatomyositisan inflammation of the muscles and skin
exacerbationthe worsening of a disease or its symptoms
genus valgusknock-knee, a condition in which the knees are very close together and the ankles are apart
genus varusbowleg, a condition of curving out of the legs
multiple myelomaa primary malignant tumor of plasma cells usually arising in bone marrow, usually progressive, and generally fatal
phantom limbfollowing amputation of a limb, a sensation that the limb still exists
RICEa first-aid treatment acronym meaning Rest, Ice, Compression, Elevation
rigor mortisa stiffness of skeletal muscles seen in death